at 20:51 

Home Page: http://ocininitiative.maeda1.jp/EnglishTop.html


(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)


(Table of contents)


By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp


Chapter 1 Wave of nationalism and socialism (1945-1956)


1.    Atlantic Charter


It is common that immediately after the beginning of the war, both parties in the war devise a concept on the postwar new order. In case of a war by two neighboring countries, it usually the annexation of the enemy's land to their own country or monetary compensation burdened by the defeated country. But as for the World War I and II, the concept of a global new order was added to them.


In case of World War II, when the whereabouts of victory or defeat was not yet clear, both the Allied Powers led by US and the Axis countries led by Germany had simultaneously considered postwar global new order. However, it was the Allied Powers that wrote the world order. The postwar idea by the Axis of Japan, Germany and Italy was buried and never exploited to the light. The Allied side, the victorious countries, erased completely the Axis’s idea.


 What was the post-war idea of the Allied Powers after the world war II? In August 1941. Atlantic Charter was drawn up by US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. It was two years later after the UK and France declared the war against Germany in 1939. At that time, the United States supported the British and French, but not participating in the war. US declared the war against Axis Countries, namely Germany, Italy and Japan on the next day after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.


The "Atlantic Charter" declared by the United States and the United Kingdom was made up of eight articles in total. In Article 1 to Article 3, it was written as follows.

“First, their countries seek no aggrandizement, territorial or others;

Second, they desire to see no territorial changes that do not accord with the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned;

Third, they respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live; and they wish to see sovereign rights and self-government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them;”


The eight principal points of the Charter were:

1.    No territorial gains were to be sought by the United States or the United Kingdom;

2.    Territorial adjustments must be in accord with the wishes of the peoples concerned;

3.    All people had a right to self-determination;

4.    Trade barriers were to be lowered;

5.    There was to be global economic cooperation and advancement of social welfare;

6.    The participants would work for a world free of want and fear;

7.    The participants would work for freedom of the seas;

8.    There was to be disarmament of aggressor nations, and a common disarmament after the war.


The Versailles regime (Paris Peace Conference) after World War I showed traditional characters such as colonialism, imperialism and punishment which imposed sanctions and huge compensation to the losers. The current Syria and Lebanon - so-called Levant region - were dominated by France. Jordan, Palestine and Iraq were colonized by the UK. This was based on the Sykes- Picot Agreement signed by both countries during the World War I in 1916 (Please refer to “Triple tongue diplomacy” of Prologue 4, 5 & 6). Germany was also subject to severe disarmament along with territorial disposition. The fierce punishment, however, against Germany caused Nazism and resulted in World War II 20 years later. The Atlantic charter was a lesson of this failure, and was the fruits of US’s idealism which continues up till now.


For the realization of ideals, independent movement of the nation state started in the postwar Middle East. The Kingdom of Jordan and the Republic of Syria were established in 1946. The background of the formation of the two countries involves complicated circumstances and could not simplified as nation-state. The Kingdom of Jordan was a product of the McMahon-Hussein Correspondence between the UK and prestigious Hassim royal family. And the Syrian Republic was a very vulnerable republic, and was a dummy country of France. France wanted to continue as imperialistic ruler.


Following Jordan and Syria, new nation countries were born one after another in the Middle East. But the Middle East was a world prevailing the struggle of ethnicity, religion and political ideology without harmony. It was a battle fields of proxy war of the East-West conflict between the US and the Soviet Union.

(To be continued ----)

drecom_ocin_japan at 13:27コメント(0)中東の戦後70年 



MENAなんでもランキング・シリーズ その13)



(http://menarank.maeda1.jp/13-T03.pdf 参照)

(図http://menarank.maeda1.jp/13-G02.pdf 参照)



UAEに次いで順位が高いのはイスラエルであり、同国は5年間を通じて常にMENA2位又は3位を維持している。トルコの世界順位は69位(14年)→55位(15年) →55位(16年)→69位(17年)→60位(18年)と浮き沈みを繰り返している。かつて世界40位台であったカタールは48位(14年)→50位(15年) →68位(16年)→83位(17年及び18年)であり5年連続して世界順位を下げている。


MENAの平均世界順位は99位(14年) →98位(15年)→107位(16年)→109位(17年及び18年)と順位を下げ、2016年以降は世界100位以下に停滞している。サウジアラビアあるいはカタールのようにMENAの多くの国の世界順位が下落し、MENAの平均順位も下がっていることは、MENAのビジネス環境が近年世界的な競争力を失っていることを示している。2011年に始まった「アラブの春」とそれに続く政治的経済的な混乱及び原油価格の下落がその要因と考えられる。


上記以外のGCC諸国の世界順位は、オマーンが47位(14年)→66位(15年)→70位(16年)→66位(17年)→71位(18年)と最近は70位前後にとどまっており、クウェイトの場合は104位(14年) →86位(15年)→101位(16年)→102位(17年)→96位(18年)と100位前後を行きつ戻りつしている。クウェイトは有力な産油国であり豊富な石油収入によりマクロ経済は全く問題がないにも関わらず同じGCC加盟国であるサウジアラビア、UAE、カタールなどと比較して評価が著しく低い。国会の解散と内閣改造を頻繁に繰り返した結果、国内インフラの整備が遅れるなど外国企業にとって魅力的なビジネス環境ではなくなっていると言えよう。




 チュニジア:        51位 → 60位 →  74位 →   77位 →  88位

 イエメン:          133位 →137位 → 170位 → 179位 → 186位

ヨルダン:        119位 →117位 → 113位 → 118位 → 103位

 エジプト:         128位 →112位 → 131位 → 122位 → 128位

  シリア:           165位 →175位 → 175位 → 173位 → 174位

  リビア:           187位 →188位 → 188位 → 188位 → 185位







        前田 高行         183-0027 東京都府中市本町2-31-13-601

                               Tel/Fax; 042-360-1284, 携帯; 090-9157-3642

                               E-mail; maeda1@jcom.home.ne.jp



drecom_ocin_japan at 14:29コメント(0)MENA 
  • ライブドアブログ