(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)

(Table of contents)

By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp


Chapter 6: Genealogy of Islamic terrorism


6-2(45) Terrorism crosses the border easily

Terrorism is the unlawful use of violence and intimidation, especially against civilians, in the pursuit of political aims (from the Oxford Dictionary). According to the definition of terrorism, there is also a political aim in religious terrorism of Islam. What is the political aim of Islamic terrorism? Many of the targets of Islamic terror is the secular regime regarded as apostates. And their aim is to overthrow the secular regime. That was the Iranian Revolution in 1979. Many terrorist activities of Shiite was aimed at Mohammad Rezā Shāh Pahlavi, who was a typical secular ruler. Then Iranian Revolution was happened. Ayatollah Khomeini established a ruling system integrating religion and politics called "Velayat-e Faqih". The theory justified the control by religious clerics until the Mahdi appears. After grabbing power, Ayatollah Khomeini called for an uprising of Shiite Muslims who live in the Arab world.


In response to the Iranian Revolution, one man who claimed himself as Mahdi occupied Macca mosque in Saudi Arabia. King Fahd of Saudi Arabia restrained terrorist by force. Passing through this incident the king of Saudi Arabia was confirmed the fear of religious fanatic movements and hate Iran which was the state of non-separation of religion and politics. On the other hand, to legitimize the religious position of the ruling Saud family, he added the name of "Custodian of the Two Mosques" in front of the title of “King”. Saud family itself is a secular power without question. In addition to the title of the King, he added an artificial title of for religious authorization.


In response to the request of Ayatollah Khomeini, Hezbollah of Shiite organization stood up in Lebanon. In addition to the conventional terrorism against Israel, Hezbollah extended the terrorist activities against Americans, especially military officers. Israel and the United States are the same enemy for Hezbollah. In 1983, the US Marine Corps headquarters in Beirut was bombed by terrorist attacks, and 241 US soldiers were killed or injured.


In Egypt, antipathy against Egyptian President Sadat who concluded historical peace treaty with Israel has ignited religious consciousness. He was assassinated by the officers of the jihad group in 1981. Furthermore, Sunni terrorist group Al Qaeda led by Osama Bin Laden activated terrorism throughout the Middle East. Al Qaeda carried out a bomb terror aimed at US soldiers in Aden of Yemen in 1992. Austrian tourists got involved in the incident.


Shiite terrorism led by Iran and Sunni terrorism led by Al Qaeda spread in the Middle East to North Africa. The United States beyond the Atlantic Ocean was the next target of Al Qaeda. The bombing of the World Trade Center Building in New York in 1993 was the first terrorism in the main land of the United States. It was a prelude of catastrophic September 11 attacks in 2001.


Constraints such as artificial borders or geographical five continents separated by the ocean are meaningless in religious terrorism. And in the modern information society connected by the Internet, a sense of solidarity propagates widely and with high-speed. The 1990s was an epoch-making era when Islam terrorism began to spread over the world. It was a characteristic of religious terrorism to easily cross the border regardless of states.


(To be continued ----)

drecom_ocin_japan at 10:53コメント(0)中東の戦後70年 


drecom_ocin_japan at 11:32コメント(0)今日のニュース 


drecom_ocin_japan at 12:54コメント(0)今日のニュース 


MENAなんでもランキング・シリーズ その18)


 中東北アフリカ諸国は英語のMiddle East & North Africaの頭文字をとってMENAと呼ばれています。MENA各国をいろいろなデータで比較しようと言うのがこの「MENAなんでもランキング・シリーズ」です。「MENA」は日頃なじみの薄い言葉ですが、国ごとの比較を通してその実態を理解していただければ幸いです。なおMENAの対象国は文献によって多少異なりますが、本シリーズでは下記の19の国と1機関(パレスチナ)を取り扱います。(アルファベット順)


 アルジェリア、バハレーン、エジプト、イラン、イラク、イスラエル、ヨルダン、クウェイト、レバノン、リビア、モロッコ、オマーン、パレスチナ自治政府、カタール、サウジアラビア、シリア、チュニジア、 トルコ、UAE(アラブ首長国連邦)、イエメン、


 これら19カ国・1機関をおおまかに分類すると、宗教的にはイスラエル(ユダヤ教)を除き、他は全てイスラム教国家でありOIC(イスラム諸国会議機構)加盟国です。なおその中でイラン、イラクはシーア派が政権政党ですが、その他の多くはスンニ派の政権国家です。また民族的にはイスラエル(ユダヤ人)、イラン(ペルシャ人)、トルコ(トルコ人)以外の国々はアラブ人の国家であり、それらの国々はアラブ連盟(Arab League)に加盟しています。つまりMENAはイスラム教スンニ派でアラブ民族の国家が多数を占める国家群と言えます。


 第18回のMENAランキングは、スウェーデンの「ストックホルム国際平和研究所(Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 略称SIPRI)」のホームページに発表されたデータベースの中からSIPRI Military Expenditure Database及びSIPRI Arms Transfers Databaseを取り上げ、2017年のMENA各国の軍事費、一人当たり国防費、GDPに占める比率及び政府歳出に占める割合を比較する。また2013年から2017年の5年間にわたる各国の武器輸入合計額を比較し、さらに参考までに主要な武器輸出国の輸出額を取り上げる。


















        前田 高行         183-0027 東京都府中市本町2-31-13-601

                               Tel/Fax; 042-360-1284, 携帯; 090-9157-3642

                               E-mail; maeda1@jcom.home.ne.jp

drecom_ocin_japan at 09:10コメント(1)MENA 


drecom_ocin_japan at 11:40コメント(0)今日のニュース 
  • ライブドアブログ