前田 高行

 

MENAなんでもランキング・シリーズ その11)

 

 中東北アフリカ諸国は英語のMiddle East & North Africaの頭文字をとってMENAと呼ばれています。MENA各国をいろいろなデータで比較しようと言うのがこの「MENAなんでもランキング・シリーズ」です。「MENA」は日頃なじみの薄い言葉ですが、国ごとの比較を通してその実態を理解していただければ幸いです。なおMENAの対象国は文献によって多少異なりますが、本シリーズでは下記の19の国と1機関(パレスチナ)を取り扱います。(アルファベット順)

 

 アルジェリア、バハレーン、エジプト、イラン、イラク、イスラエル、ヨルダン、クウェイト、レバノン、リビア、モロッコ、オマーン、パレスチナ自治政府、カタール、サウジアラビア、シリア、チュニジア、 トルコ、UAE(アラブ首長国連邦)、イエメン、

 

 これら19カ国・1機関をおおまかに分類すると、宗教的にはイスラエル(ユダヤ教)を除き、他は全てイスラム教国家でありOIC(イスラム諸国会議機構)加盟国です。なおその中でイラン、イラクはシーア派が政権政党ですが、その他の多くはスンニ派の政権国家です。また民族的にはイスラエル(ユダヤ人)、イラン(ペルシャ人)、トルコ(トルコ人)以外の国々はアラブ人の国家であり、それらの国々はアラブ連盟(Arab League)に加盟しています。つまりMENAはイスラム教スンニ派でアラブ民族の国家が多数を占める国家群と言えます。

 

 第11回のランキングは、UNDP(国連開発計画)が毎年発表する世界各国の人間開発に関する報告書の最新版「Human Development Report 2016」からMENA諸国をとりあげて比較しました。

 

1.「Human Development Report 2016」について

UNDPの「Human Development Report 2016(以下「HDR2016)では、(1)188の国及び地域の人間開発指数(Human Development Index, HDI)の値と順位、(2)159の国と地域の男女不平等指数(Gender Inequality Index, GII)が発表されている。

 

レポート全文(英文):http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2016_human_development_report.pdf 

UNDP東京事務所プレスリリース:

http://www.jp.undp.org/content/tokyo/ja/home/library/human_development/human_development1/hdr_2016.html 

 

人間開発指数(HDI

HDIとは、人間開発の3つの基本的な側面──健康で長生きできるかどうか、知識を得る機会があるかどうか、人間らしい生活を送れるかどうか――について、進歩の度合いを長期にわたって測定するための総合的な指標である。健康と長寿に関しては出生時平均余命を、知識を得る機会に関しては成人の平均就学年数(25歳以上の人が生涯を通じて受けた教育年数の平均)と、就学年齢児童の生涯予測就学年数(現在の年齢別就学率が変わらないと仮定した場合に、いま就学開始年齢の子供が生涯を通じて通算何年間の学校教育を受けるかを予測した数字)を基準にしている。人間らしい生活(生活水準)に関しては、2005年の米ドル建て購買力平価(PPP)に換算した1人当たり国民総所得(GNI)を基準に用いている。

 

男女不平等指数(GII

 「男女不平等指数(GII)」は、リプロダクティブ・ヘルス(性と生殖に関する健康)、エンパワーメント、そして経済活動への参加の3つの側面で、ジェンダーに基づく不平等がどの程度存在するかを表す指数である。リプロダクティブ・ヘルスの状況は、妊産婦死亡率と15-19歳の女性1000人当たりの出生数で測定する。エンパワーメントの状況は、立法府の議席に占める割合と中・高等教育への進学状況を基準とする。経済活動への参加状況は、労働市場への参加率で判断する。GIIは、従来の「ジェンダー開発指数」と「ジェンダー・エンパワーメント指数」に代わる指数として導入された。GIIは、3つの側面における男女の不平等により、人間開発のレベルがどの程度損なわれているかを明らかにするものである。

 

(続く)

 

本稿に関するコメント、ご意見をお聞かせください。

        前田 高行         183-0027 東京都府中市本町2-31-13-601

                               Tel/Fax; 042-360-1284, 携帯; 090-9157-3642

                               E-mail; maeda1@jcom.home.ne.jp



drecom_ocin_japan at 08:58コメント(0)MENA 

2017年10月31日

2017年10月29日

Home Page: OCIN INITIATIVE

 

(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)

 

(Table of contents)

 

 

By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp

 

Prologue

 

1.    Summit at Great Bitter Lake of Suez Canal

 

Roosevelt&Abdulaziz
 
On February 14, 1945 when the allies' victory in World War II became reliable, President Franklin D. Roosevelt met with Saudi Arabia's King Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman Al-Saud (also known as Ibn Saud) on the US cruiser Quincy at Great Bitter lake located in the northern part of the Suez Canal..

 

Just before the meeting, President Roosevelt held a three-way talks with British Prime Minister Churchill and Secretary General of the Soviet Socialist Republic Federation (Soviet Union) Stalin at Yalta on the Crimean Peninsula from Feb 4 till 11, 1945. They discussed about world order after the Second World War and unconditional surrender of Japan (Yalta talks)

 

President Roosevelt was scheduled to return home immediately via Malta after the Yalta talks ended. However, Roosevelt on board the battleship Quincy did not head to the United States. Instead, he took the risk of attack by the German submarine U-boat in the Mediterranean, and made Quincy headed to the Suez Canal to talk with the King of Saudi Arabia. He spared his precious time for having talked with the King before returning home. It clearly showed that he himself and the United States made a point of Saudi Arabia as a important ally in the postwar Arab world.

 

One of the reasons the United States making a point of Saudi Arabia was in oil resources that sleep under the soil of that country. At the end of the World War I, there was a famous telegram addressed to then US president Wilson in which French Prime Minister Clemenceau who was in German fight. Clemenceau wrote "One drop of oil is one drop of blood". Value of oil in World War II was clear not only Roosevelt but also to everyone's eyes. It was increasingly demonstrated and indispensable for economic recovery after the war.

 

Between the two world wars in 1930s , several large oil fields were discovered in Iraq and Kuwait. It proved that the Persian Gulf is a big oil field area. The world's largest Saudi Arabian Ghawar oil field was discovered by the US oil company in 1940. No oil field beyond the reserves of the Ghawar oil field was found 70 years later, and this record will not be broken in future. Development of a full-fledged oil field remained frozen as the First World War broke out one year earlier than the discovery of Ghawar. The oil consumption during World War II has reached hundreds of times at the time of World War I. The President was anxious that the US would consume at a pace more than newly discovered and the supply of oil would be tapered. The United States, as soon as the war ended, should start developing the oil fields of Saudi Arabia, and wanted to secure oil steadily and at the same time to capture the hegemony of postwar world energy.

 

Roosevelt, also, had a diplomatic problem wanting to support Abdul Aziz. It is to avoid the Jews and Arabs conflict in Palestine. By the British Balfour Declaration and the Hussein-McMahon agreement which promised to both Jewish and Arabs during the First World War has also strengthened the independence movement around the Palestinian land. Confrontation between the two sides was in deep. US’s consistent policy from previous presidency of Roosevelt was to support the immigration and settlement of Jews. Roosevelt sent a letter to Abdul Aziz from time to time before their meeting. He asked the advice of the king about how to reduce and how the collision of Jews and Arabs over the immigration and land. King Abdul Aziz was also consistent to stop Jewish immigration to Palestine. That was the answer of Abdul Aziz king.

 

Although they each other faced difficult problems in the future, their talks were very friendly. Abdul Aziz was a full-bodied creature by repeated battle in the Arabian Peninsula. A big man with 1 meter 90 cm and dragging his feet overwhelmed the people and had a charismatic leadership. In addition, he was a honest man and has sent a religious life. Roosevelt seems to have felt personal familiarity to Abdul Aziz without prejudice of race and religion.

 

Later, Roosevelt explained this meeting as follows;
"Through discussions with the King of Saudi Arabia, I could get more content from a single meeting than many information by the State Department so far "

 

President Roosevelt, shortly after returning home, died at the age of 63 as incumbent president by heart attack on April 12. It was before allied nation's victory. The meeting between Roosevelt and Abdul Aziz, so called "West meets East", was the first historical significance after the Second World War.

(To be continued ----)



drecom_ocin_japan at 09:29コメント(0)中東の戦後70年 
記事検索
月別アーカイブ
タグクラウド
QRコード
QRコード
  • ライブドアブログ