MENAなんでもランキング・シリーズ その13)


 中東北アフリカ諸国は英語のMiddle East & North Africaの頭文字をとってMENAと呼ばれています。MENA各国をいろいろなデータで比較しようと言うのがこの「MENAなんでもランキング・シリーズ」です。「MENA」は日頃なじみの薄い言葉ですが、国ごとの比較を通してその実態を理解していただければ幸いです。なおMENAの対象国は文献によって多少異なりますが、本シリーズでは下記の19の国と1機関(パレスチナ)を取り扱います。(アルファベット順)


 アルジェリア、バハレーン、エジプト、イラン、イラク、イスラエル、ヨルダン、クウェイト、レバノン、リビア、モロッコ、オマーン、パレスチナ自治政府、カタール、サウジアラビア、シリア、チュニジア、 トルコ、UAE(アラブ首長国連邦)、イエメン、


 これら19カ国・1機関をおおまかに分類すると、宗教的にはイスラエル(ユダヤ教)を除き、他は全てイスラム教国家でありOIC(イスラム諸国会議機構)加盟国です。なおその中でイラン、イラクはシーア派が政権政党ですが、その他の多くはスンニ派の政権国家です。また民族的にはイスラエル(ユダヤ人)、イラン(ペルシャ人)、トルコ(トルコ人)以外の国々はアラブ人の国家であり、それらの国々はアラブ連盟(Arab League)に加盟しています。つまりMENAはイスラム教スンニ派でアラブ民族の国家が多数を占める国家群と言えます。


 第13回のランキングは、World Bank(世界銀行)の一グループDoing Businessがおこなったビジネス環境に関する世界各国のランキング(Economy Rankings)2018年版についてMENA諸国をとりあげて比較しました。


   Doing Businessのホームページ:



1.「Economy Rankings – Doing Business」について

Economy Rankings – Doing Business 2018」は、世界190の国あるいは地域のビジネス環境をランク付けしたものであり、当該国・地域でビジネス活動を行う場合の難易度を知る目安になる。判定は以下の10項目について順位付けを行い、それら10項目の順位の加重平均によって総合順位(Ease of Doing Business)が決められている。


(1)   Starting a Business (起業)

(2)   Dealing with Construction Permits(建設許可)

(3)   Getting Electricity (電力事情)

(4)   Registering Property(登記)

(5)   Getting Credit(信用取得)

(6)   Protecting Investors(投資家保護)

(7)   Paying Taxes(徴税)

(8)   Trading Across Borders(通関)

(9)   Enforcing Contracts(契約強制力)

(10)Resolving Insolvency(清算)







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drecom_ocin_japan at 11:36コメント(0)MENA 




(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)


(Table of contents)


By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp




5. Britain's triple tongue diplomacy during World War I (2)

(2) Sykes-Picot Agreement


The second piece of UK’s "triple tongue diplomacy" following McMahon-Hussein Correspondence was the secret agreement so-called "Sykes-Picot agreement" to divide Arabic territory of the Ottoman Empire by Britain and France (and Russia).


British diplomatic advisor Mark Sykes and French diplomat Francois Georges Picot drafted about the division of the Ottoman Empire at the end of 1915 when the victory of the UK, French and their allies became sure. Russia also joined with the secret agreement. Three countries have mutually signed the agreement officially known “Asia Minor Agreement” in May 1916, in Petrograd, Russia. This agreement was generally called "Sykes-Picot Agreement" after taking their names. It was just before the uprising of Hussein, Sharif of Makkah, according to the McMahon-Hussein Correspondence (see previous section).


In this secret agreement for territorial division, the UK gained Southern Syria and South Mesopotamia.  France became the ruler of Syria, southern Anatolia and Mosul district of Iraq. Russia was given the Black Sea coast. In more detail in the Middle Eastern region, the UK and France divided the Mediterranean coast. From southern Anatolia to Beirut were directly governed by France. France also got the power in the northern Mesopotamian region from Damascus to Aleppo and Mosul. Compared with the current border line, the French power sphere will be from the southern part of Turkey throughout Syria, plus northern Iraq and Lebanon.


Meanwhile, the UK controlled directly the area from Baghdad to Basra adding the Kuwait and the south of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf. The desert zone spreading from Amman to the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula were under UK’s influence. This area covers Jordan, southern part of Iraq and GCC countries-Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and UAE.


Palestine, which became the biggest fire species in the Middle East, was regarded as the co-governorate of UK and France.


"Sykes-Picot Agreement" was a product of the competition to acquire the imperial colonies by the three countries of the UK, France and Russia. Unfortunately the interest of Arab nation, who had maintained a moderate peace and order throughout the region for thousands of years, had never been taken into consideration. It was a secret agreement between three empires. Only one year after the signing of the agreement, Russian revolution had broken out in 1917. The secret agreement was revealed by the Soviet revolutionary government. It was natural feeling that the Arabs, who asked for honest fulfillment of the "McMahon-Hussein Correspondence", have shown antipathy against UK & France.


(To be continued ----)


drecom_ocin_japan at 16:34コメント(0)中東の戦後70年 
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