中東の戦後70年

2017年11月18日

Home Page: OCIN INITIATIVE

 

(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)

 

(Table of contents)

 

 

By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp

 

Prologue

 

4. Britain's triple tongue diplomacy during World War I (1)

 

When talking about the Middle East after the World War II, it is inevitable to mention about  "triple tongue diplomacy" by Britain during the World War I.

 

World War I was a war between two groups. One is UK, France and their allies including Japan. The other side is Germany, Austria and Ottoman Empire. UK, France and its allies defeated German allies. In 1919 the Versailles Treaty was concluded at the Paris Peace Conference on postwar treatments led by UK and France. This treaty was extremely harsh for the defeated Germany and Ottoman Empire. Germany ceded its territory and also was forced a huge compensation. It was the system called the winner-take-all. The UK and France also did not forgive the Ottoman Empire. Except for Asia Minor  UK and France forfeited Levant, Tigris & Euphrates regions from Ottoman Empire, where she has been the lord in the long history. It is a finish of colonial acquisition games by the European imperialistic nations continuing from the 19th century. The Arab people who has been living in that area for a long time has been totally neglected.

 

During the World War I UK made three promises – the McMahon-Hussein Correspondence, the Sykes- Pico Agreement and the Balfour Declaration. They were the roots of all evil at present in the Middle East. Each of these three promises were concluded with different partners, and totally conflicted each other. Therefore, these series of UK diplomacy were criticized as triple tongue diplomacy. It was not only critically acknowledged, but it brought about disaster to the whole region of the Middle East, and the disaster has been continuing for one hundred years.

 

(1)  McMahon-Hussein Correspondence

The first of these three promises is a series of ten letters between Henry McMahon, the British High Commissioner in the Sultanate of Egypt, and Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Makkah from July 1915 to March 1916. As the reward of the war against Ottoman Empire, McMahon promised independence of   Arabs. He wrote a letter to Hussein on 24 October 1915, saying as follows.

 

"I am empowered in the name of the Government of Great Britain to give the followint assuraances and make the following reply to your letter:

 Subject to the above modifications, Greate Britain is prepared to recongnize and support the Independence of the Arabs within the territories included in the limits and boundaries proposed by the Sherif of Mecca”

 

Hussein was born in historic house as a 39th direct descendant of the Prophet Muhammad. He was the Sherif of Makkah and the King of the Hizjaz, reigning the Red Sea coastal zone.  Hussein, who was supported by UK, ordered his sons Abdallah and Faisal to attack the Ottoman Empire. Abdullah later became the King of Jordan and grandfather of Abdallah II. And Faisal became the King of Iraq. Two sons fought guerrilla war against Ottoman Empire.

 

アラビアのロレンス
It was this moment that the British military officer Thomas Edward Lawrence, so-called "Lawrence of Arabia", worked as a operation staff of King Faisal. The name of "Lawrence of Arabia" might give the impression that Lawrence himself created his own tactics and led ignorant Arabs to the victory. However, this was wholly illusion made by UK. He was merely a liaison officer of the British Army. His duty was the agency of military logistics such as war chest, weapons and ammunition supplied from the UK to the Arabs.

 

He himself believed that his country would faithfully keep the promise of the McMahon-Hussein Correspondence. However, after the war, the land actually allocated to the Arabs was far from their expectation. T.E. Lawrence lost the trust of Arabs. His heart was broken and he returned to UK. He afterwards lost his own life by a motorcycle accident.

 

In the Arab world, Lawrence is regarded as "a tool of the UK" and has not been appreciated at all. On the other hand, Western people who is the winner of the war created a hero at one’s descretion.


(To be continued ----)

 

 



drecom_ocin_japan at 15:39コメント(0) 

2017年11月12日

Home Page: OCIN INITIATIVE

 

(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)

 

(Table of contents)

 

 

By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp

 

Prologue

 

3. Three identities in the Middle East

 

From now on, I will follow the history of the Middle East for 70 years after the war according to my own opinion. I think that there are three identities in the Middle East. The first one is "blood" identity. The second is the "religious" identity. And the last one is "ideology” identity. I will frequently refer these three identities in each chapter. I, therefore, would like to briefly explain hereof.

 

Firstly, "blood" identity is a biological identity, contemporary, called as DNA. This is given naturally when we were born as a human being. The identity of "blood" is "race". The largest race in the Middle East is "Arab", but in the Middle East some other ethnic groups such as the Turkish and Persian  ethnicity coexist (Although there is the definition of "Jewish", but Jewish can not be said to be "race" in biological meaning).

 

The ethnicity, namely race, is a rather big concept. Blood relationship connect each other.The closest blood relationship is parent and child, brothers and sisters, which is called "family". If you expand to relationships such as uncle, aunt, cousin, etc, it will be "relatives". When covers distant relatives, it will be "clan". Furthermore, "tribe" overwhelming "clans", and eventually reaching the "ethnic" category.

 

In a modern society where urbanization has progressed, as described by the word "nuclear family", nowadays, the connection of blood is limited in family members or relatives. "Clan" or "tribe" is almost absolute. The word "ethnic group", which is the biggest concept, is still frequently used today, but it is often used as a political slogan. On the other hand, in the Middle East (especially among the Arab peoples) not only the top powerful persons but also ordinary citizens use widely the identity of this "blood".

 

The identity of "blood" is a congenital one inherited as DNA, too, but on the other hand, the identity of "religion” and "ideology" gets acquired after his berth.

 

Regarding religion in the Middle East, Islam has overwhelming influence. Not only Arab ethnic groups, but also Turkish people and Persian races are mostly Islamic Muslims. Of course, in the Middle East there are Christian believers such as the Egyptian Coptic or Jewish country Israel, too. Both Muslims, Christianity and Judaism have a common character of monotheism. They are Abrahamic religion. But because of that reason there is a long history of struggling each other and hatred. Especially the confrontation between the Islamic states and the Jewish state Israel cannot be foreseen the future.

 

In addition, Islam in modern Middle East has a confrontation between Sunni and Shiite sects. Furthermore even among Sunni there are conflicts between fundamentalist and moderate. Needless to say, the conflict is common in religious fields not only Islam but also Christianity. Look at the religious war between Catholic and Protestant in Middle Ages. But in the Middle East where the modern Western Europe civilization has penetrated, the conflict of religion is still a big problem and even sharpened in the modern age of globalization that the Internet has developed.

 

The third identity is political or economic ideology with principle and assertion. After being relieved from the bondage of religion in Western Europe in Middle Ages, the conflict of ideology has appeared. Through the era of Industrial Revolution and mercantilism, ideology has transformed into capitalism. In the historical process, inequality of wealth distribution became a problem. The socialism and communism ideology have spread globally.

 

The appearance of the Soviet Socialist Federation (Soviet Union) by the Russian Revolution had spread socialism worldwide. Western capitalism and Soviet socialism originally had mutually incompatible nature. But in order to combat the totalitarianism of Nazis in Germany, they fought together to overthrow Nazism. And World War II was over. As soon as war is over, US-led West alliance conflicted sharply with Soviet-led East alliance. It was called "the Cold War era". Even if we call it "the Cold War", in fact, hot wars as surrogate wars by both side occurred allover the world. The Middle East has also become one of the battle front. Before liberated from the spell of religious Islam, the Middle East has caught up in the ideological war. This has expanded the disorder moreover.

 

I would like to consider again the order of time series between "blood", "religion" and "ideology". "Blood" is inherent and genetically native as DNA. In comparison, "religion" and "ideology" are acquired after berth. In most cases, "religion" sticks to children during uninhibited childhood. Christian babies are baptized, and Muslim babies grow up hearing lullaby of the prayer words "Azan" from the mosque. In contrast, "ideology” is imprinted into the brains of individuals through education (especially through higher education). In other words, these three elements are taken in order beginning with congenital "blood", then "religion", and "Ideology" in the last. This is a natural order.

 

Looking at the national level, the ethnic nation, the religious states and ideological states of capitalism or socialism appears from time to time. In Western Europe three identities have appeared separately in history with a considerable time span. They never appeared simultaneously. However, in the Middle East three identities have been appeared in parallel in the short history of 70 years after World War II. Disorder and tragedy in the Middle East were born in such circumstance. This is what I want to say.

 

(To be continued ----)

 



drecom_ocin_japan at 09:33コメント(0) 

2017年11月04日

Home Page: OCIN INITIATIVE

 

(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)

 

(Table of contents)

 

 

By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp

 

Prologue

 

2. Middle East connecting Europe and Asia

EurasiaMap2
 

Eurasia is the largest continent in the world. As its English name indicates it is a word synthesizing Euro and Asia. Where is the boundary between Europe and Asia? It is almost a common view that one of the boundaries is the Bosporus Strait in Turkey. The west side of the Bosporus is Istanbul, and Uskudar on the other side of the strait is the entrance to Asia. The Bosporus Bridge, now called July 15 Martyrs’ Bridge is exactly a bridge connecting Europe and Asia. And the area of Anatolia Plateau from Uskudar to Turkey's capital Ankara is called "Asia Minor".

 

Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom used the name of Asia in the Age of Discovery in the 15th century. These European countries competed each other to monopolize the trade. They battled not only in India but also in Indonesia. They made strengthen the colonial rule. The geographical concept of Asia was established in this process. It was a one-sided decision by the Europeans. Asians, however, did not recognize the one Asia. I am confident that all of Japanese does not see Islamic Arabs as the same Asians.

 

But why people in the Middle East themselves sees Japanese as the same Asians? It is no doubt that the reason why people in the Middle East view the Far East as the one Asia is the imprinting by Europe or the United States when they establish the world order in modern history. It is obvious if you look at the grouping of the countries for various sports competitions. For example, Asian League of the World Cup Football covers the countries from the Far East to the Middle East countries. In other words, the definition of Asia means the areas except Europe.

 

The area Europeans named "Asia" occupies a large part of the Eurasian Continent. The Eurasian continents extends from the east longitude 10 degrees, where the Portugal is, and 180 degrees of the Bering Strait. Istanbul, the eastern end of Europe, is located at 30 degrees east longitude. This means that five-sixth of the Eurasian continent is Asia, Europe is only one sixth.

 

Asia is so wide that Europeans could not bundle Asia as one region, They, therefore, divided Asia into several regions. It was a very simple and unilateral division from the viewpoint of their geographical perspective. They named each regions as the Near East, Middle East, South Asia, South East Asia and Far East. Far East means the end of the east. It is a very rude naming for the people living in that region. Suppose that If the history was reversed, Britain, France might have been called "Far West" at the end of the west!

 

Anyway, when crossing the Bosphorus Strait, you are now in "Near East". It covers the Anatolian peninsula. And the eastern Levant (nowadays Syria and Lebanon), Israel, Iraq and Iran consist  "Middle East". In modern history, however, "Near East" and "Middle East" are united and called "Middle East". India and Pakistan are called South Asia.

 

Europeans desired to trade with South Asia, South East Asia and Far East countries directly. But unfortunately, the onshore route had to rely on relay trade with the Ottoman Empire or the Persian Empire. Free trade was hindered in those days. In the 15th century to the 17th century, The biggest reason why European countries embarked on the ocean is to get peppers and tea in Indian Ocean coast or obtain gold, silver and China pottery from Japan (Zipang). Europeans found the offshore route instead of onshore route through the Cape Hope at the southern tip of African Continent by sailing ship. Age of Discovery has begun.

 

European countries advanced from South Asia to Far East Asia along the coast of the Indian Ocean and South China Sea. It is an invasion dots by dots. The Age of Discoveries was an age of trading. At that time European countries themselves did not have own competitive goods to export to India, Southeast Asia, Java, etc,. Europeans purchased local products at one port and resell them at the other port resulting big margin. Sometimes they looted the precious products from the local and brought them back to home. Many merchants got huge wealth. When it came to industrial revolution with accumulated wealth into weapons in the 19th century, trade became as nominal ones. Asian colonization has started.

 

Ottoman Empire gradually eroded through Western colonial invasion. France built the Suez Canal in 1869, after which the UK became a substantial ruler of the Canal. In this way, the route, from the Mediterranean to the Suez Canal and then through the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean, has been secured and the reign of Asia by Western powers has become firm. Finally Ottoman Empire was defeated in the First World War from 1914 to 17, the vast Asian region ranging from the Middle East to Southeast Asia was dominated by Western colonialists of the UK, France and the Netherlands. They monopolized the wealth of Asia.

 


(To be continued ----)

 



drecom_ocin_japan at 10:18コメント(0) 

2017年10月29日

Home Page: OCIN INITIATIVE

 

(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)

 

(Table of contents)

 

 

By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp

 

Prologue

 

1.    Summit at Great Bitter Lake of Suez Canal

 

Roosevelt&Abdulaziz
 
On February 14, 1945 when the allies' victory in World War II became reliable, President Franklin D. Roosevelt met with Saudi Arabia's King Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman Al-Saud (also known as Ibn Saud) on the US cruiser Quincy at Great Bitter lake located in the northern part of the Suez Canal..

 

Just before the meeting, President Roosevelt held a three-way talks with British Prime Minister Churchill and Secretary General of the Soviet Socialist Republic Federation (Soviet Union) Stalin at Yalta on the Crimean Peninsula from Feb 4 till 11, 1945. They discussed about world order after the Second World War and unconditional surrender of Japan (Yalta talks)

 

President Roosevelt was scheduled to return home immediately via Malta after the Yalta talks ended. However, Roosevelt on board the battleship Quincy did not head to the United States. Instead, he took the risk of attack by the German submarine U-boat in the Mediterranean, and made Quincy headed to the Suez Canal to talk with the King of Saudi Arabia. He spared his precious time for having talked with the King before returning home. It clearly showed that he himself and the United States made a point of Saudi Arabia as a important ally in the postwar Arab world.

 

One of the reasons the United States making a point of Saudi Arabia was in oil resources that sleep under the soil of that country. At the end of the World War I, there was a famous telegram addressed to then US president Wilson in which French Prime Minister Clemenceau who was in German fight. Clemenceau wrote "One drop of oil is one drop of blood". Value of oil in World War II was clear not only Roosevelt but also to everyone's eyes. It was increasingly demonstrated and indispensable for economic recovery after the war.

 

Between the two world wars in 1930s , several large oil fields were discovered in Iraq and Kuwait. It proved that the Persian Gulf is a big oil field area. The world's largest Saudi Arabian Ghawar oil field was discovered by the US oil company in 1940. No oil field beyond the reserves of the Ghawar oil field was found 70 years later, and this record will not be broken in future. Development of a full-fledged oil field remained frozen as the First World War broke out one year earlier than the discovery of Ghawar. The oil consumption during World War II has reached hundreds of times at the time of World War I. The President was anxious that the US would consume at a pace more than newly discovered and the supply of oil would be tapered. The United States, as soon as the war ended, should start developing the oil fields of Saudi Arabia, and wanted to secure oil steadily and at the same time to capture the hegemony of postwar world energy.

 

Roosevelt, also, had a diplomatic problem wanting to support Abdul Aziz. It is to avoid the Jews and Arabs conflict in Palestine. By the British Balfour Declaration and the Hussein-McMahon agreement which promised to both Jewish and Arabs during the First World War has also strengthened the independence movement around the Palestinian land. Confrontation between the two sides was in deep. US’s consistent policy from previous presidency of Roosevelt was to support the immigration and settlement of Jews. Roosevelt sent a letter to Abdul Aziz from time to time before their meeting. He asked the advice of the king about how to reduce and how the collision of Jews and Arabs over the immigration and land. King Abdul Aziz was also consistent to stop Jewish immigration to Palestine. That was the answer of Abdul Aziz king.

 

Although they each other faced difficult problems in the future, their talks were very friendly. Abdul Aziz was a full-bodied creature by repeated battle in the Arabian Peninsula. A big man with 1 meter 90 cm and dragging his feet overwhelmed the people and had a charismatic leadership. In addition, he was a honest man and has sent a religious life. Roosevelt seems to have felt personal familiarity to Abdul Aziz without prejudice of race and religion.

 

Later, Roosevelt explained this meeting as follows;
"Through discussions with the King of Saudi Arabia, I could get more content from a single meeting than many information by the State Department so far "

 

President Roosevelt, shortly after returning home, died at the age of 63 as incumbent president by heart attack on April 12. It was before allied nation's victory. The meeting between Roosevelt and Abdul Aziz, so called "West meets East", was the first historical significance after the Second World War.

(To be continued ----)



drecom_ocin_japan at 09:29コメント(0) 

2017年07月30日

 

プロローグ

Prologue

فاتحة

 

0-1(1)  スエズ運河グレート・ビター湖の会談

0-1(1)  Summit at Great Bitter Lake of Suez Canal

0-1 (1) قمة في البحيرات المرة في قناة السويس

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5242262.html

 

0-2(2) ヨーロッパとアジアをつなぐ中東

0-2(2) Middle East connecting Europe and Asia

0-2 (2) الشرق الأوسط التي تربط بين أوروبا وآسيا

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5242742.html

 

0-3(3) 中東を流れる三つのアイデンティティ

0-3(3)  Three identities flowing in the Middle East

0-3 (3) ثلاثة هويات المتدفقة في الشرق الأوسط

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5243176.html

 

0-4(4) 第一次大戦中の英国の三枚舌外交(その1)
0-4(4)
  Britain's three tongue diplomacy during World War I (1)
0-4 (4) بريطانيا الدبلوماسية ثلاثة اللسان أثناء الحرب العالمية الأولى (1)
http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5243617.html

 

0-5(5) 第一次大戦中の英国の三枚舌外交(その2)
0-5(5)
  Britain's three tongue diplomacy during World War I (2)
0-5 (5) في بريطانيا الدبلوماسية ثلاثة اللسان أثناء الحرب العالمية الأولى (2)
http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5244026.html

 

0-6(6) 第一次大戦中の英国の三枚舌外交(その3)
0-6(6)
  Britain's three tongue diplomacy during World War I (3)
0-6 (6) بريطانيا الدبلوماسية ثلاثة اللسان أثناء الحرب العالمية الأولى (3)
http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5244482.html

 

 

1章:民族主義と社会主義のうねり(1945-1956)

Chapter 1 Wave of nationalism and socialism (1945-1956)

الفصل 1 الموجة القومية والاشتراكية (1945-1956)

 

1-1(7) 大西洋憲章

1-1(7) Atlantic Charter

1-1 (7) ميثاق الأطلسيc

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5244993.html

 

1-2(8)  戦後ゼロ年:アラブ連盟の結成

1-2(8)  Formation of the Arab League

1-2 (8) تشكيل لجامعة الدول العربية

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5245507.html

 

1-3(9)  イスラエル独立(その1):ユダヤ人の祖国建設運動

1-3(9)  Israel independence(1): Jewish motherland construction movement

1-3 (9) استقلال إسرائيل (1): حركة البناء الوطن اليهودي

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5245947.html

 

1-4(10)  イスラエル独立(その2):ユダヤ人とは?

1-4(10)  Israel independence(2): Who is a Jew?

1-4 (10) استقلال إسرائيل (2): من هو اليهودي؟

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5246425.html

 

1-5(11)   イスラエル独立(その3):流入するユダヤ移民に押し出されるパレスチナのアラブ人

1-5(11)   Israel independence(3): Palestinian Arabs extruded by incoming Jewish immigrants

1-5 (11) استقلال إسرائيل (3): العرب الفلسطينيين مقذوف من قبل المهاجرين اليهود القادمين

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5246902.html

 

1-6(12)  イスラエル独立(その4):対英テロ活動を経てついに独立

1-6(12)  Israel independence(4): Independence of Israel after terrorism against UK

1-6 (12) استقلال إسرائيل (4): استقلال إسرائيل بعد الإرهاب ضد المملكة المتحدة

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5247365.html

 

1-7(13)  ナクバで覚醒した青年将校

1-7(13)  Young officers awakned by Nakba

1-7 (13) ضباط يونغ استيقظ النكبة

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5247804.html

 

1-8(14)  英雄ナセル:東西両陣営を手玉に取るアラブの星

1-8(14)  Nasser mystifies the east and west

1-8 (14) ناصر غامض الشرق والغرب

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5248273.html

 

 

2章:戦後世界のうねりー植民地時代の終焉とブロック化する世界

Chapter 2 Global wave – The demise of the colonial era and the regional power

الفصل 2 موجة عالمية - زوال الحقبة الاستعمارية وقوة إقليمية

 

2-1(15) 対照的なフランスと英国の植民地支配

2-1(15)  Contrasting French and British colonial rule

2-1 (15) وبمقارنة الحكم الاستعماري الفرنسي والبريطاني

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5248800.html

 

2-2(16) ラ・マルセイエーズとインターナショナルの歌

2-2(16) La Marseillaise & The Internationale

2-2 (16) لا البؤساء وانترناسيونال

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5249241.html

 

2-3(17) 東西二大陣営の激突

2-3(17) Clash of the East and West

2-3 (17) صراع الشرق والغرب

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5249681.html

 

2-4(18) 離合集散を繰り返すアラブ世界

2-4(18)  The Arab world that repeats division and dissolution

2-4 (18) عالم العربي أن يكرر الانقسام والانحلال

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5250157.html

 

2-5(19) 「智」が根付かないアラブ世界

2-5(19) Arab world where ideology does not take root

2-5 (19) العالم العربي حيث لا الأيديولوجية تترسخ

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5250586.html

 

2-6(20) 立ち上がるパレスチナ人

2-6(20) Establishment of PLO

2-6 (20) إنشاء منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5251031.html

 

2-7(21) 第三次中東戦争とナセルの死

2-7(21) Six Day War and the death of Nasser

2-7 (21) حرب الأيام الستة وفاة ناصر

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5251507.html

 

2-8(22) ゲリラになるか?難民になるか? 彷徨えるパレスチナ人

2-8(22) Guerilla combatant or refugee? Wandering Palestine

2-8 (22) مقاتل حرب العصابات أو لاجئ؟ تجول فلسطين

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5252013.html

 

 

3章:アラーの恵みー石油ブームの到来
Chapter 3: The grace of Allah – Oil boom
الفصل 3: نعمة الله - طفرة النفط

3-1(23) 中東の石油の曙 

3-1(23) The dawn of ME oil industry 

3-1 (23) فجر صناعة النفط في الشرق الأوسط

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5252501.html

 

3-2(24) OPEC結成

3-2(24) Formation of OPEC

3-2 (24) تشكيل أوبك

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5253199.html

 

3-3(25) 歴史の表舞台に躍り出たサウジアラビア

3-3(25)  Saudi Arabia who jumped out to the front stage of history

3-3 (25) المملكة العربية السعودية الذين قفزوا إلى المرحلة الأولى من التاريخ

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5253821.html

 

3-4(26) 富の分け前を求めてー湾岸産油国に殺到する出稼ぎ

3-4(26) Searching for wealth – Migrants rushing into Gulf countries

3-4 (26) تبحث عن الثروة - المهاجرين التسرع في دول الخليج

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5254549.html

 

3-5(27) 第四次中東戦争と第一次オイルショック(1)智将サダトの登場

3-5(27) Yom Kippur War and Oil shock(1) Warrior Anwar Sadat

3-5 (27) حرب يوم الغفران وصدمة النفط (1) المحارب أنور السادات

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5255213.html

 

3-6(28) 第四次中東戦争と第一次オイルショック(2)石油を武器に!

3-6(28)  Yom Kippur War and Oil shock(2) Petroleum as a weapon

3-6 (28) حرب يوم الغفران وصدمة النفط (2) البترول كسلاح

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5255894.html

 

 

4章:中東の戦争と平和

Chapter 4: War and Peace in The Middle East

الفصل 4: الحرب والسلام في الشرق الأوسط

 

4-1(29) 束の間の平和:イスラエルとエジプトの和平

4-1(29) Brief tranquility: Peace between Israel and Egypt

4-1 (29) الهدوء موجز: السلام بين إسرائيل ومصر

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5256577.html

 

4-2(30) 平穏な市民生活に忍び寄る長期独裁政権の影

4-2(30) Dictatorship shadows peaceful civic life

4-2 (30) الدكتاتورية الظلال الحياة المدنية السلمية

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5257313.html

 

4-3(31) ポピュリズムが育てる独裁者

4-3(31) Dictator created by populism

4-3 (31) الدكتاتور التي أنشأتها الشعبوية

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5257964.html

 

4-4(32) 「平和の家」と「戦争の家」

4-4(32) “Dar Al Islam (House of peace)” and “Dar Al Harb (House of war)”

4-4 (32) "دار السلام" و "دار الحرب"

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5258633.html

 

4-5(33) アフガン戦争勃発:呉越同舟の米国とアラブ

4-5(33) The war in Afghanistan: Wu Kogen boat of US and Arab

4-5 (33) الحرب في أفغانستان: وو كوجين قارب من الولايات المتحدة والعربية

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5259281.html

 

4-6(34) イラン・イスラム革命

4-6(34) Islamic revolution in Iran

4-6 (34) الثورة الإسلامية في إيران

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5259901.html

 

4-7(35) イラン・イラク戦争:産油国を米国が味方のイラクと孤立無援のイラン

4-7(35) Iran-Iraq War: Iraq supported by Arab & US vs isolated Iran

4-7 (35) الحرب الإيرانية-العراقية: العراق بدعم من العربية والولايات المتحدة ضد إيران معزولة

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5260509.html

 

4-8(36) ナクバの東

4-8(36) East of Nakba(great catastrophe)

4-8 (36) شرق النكبة (كارثة كبرى)

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5261117.html

 

 

5章:二つのこよみ(西暦とヒジュラ暦)

Chapter 5: Two calendars (Gregorian & Hijra)

الفصل 5: اثنان من التقويمات (ميلادي وهجري)

 

5-1(37) 西暦に侵食されるヒジュラ暦

5-1(37) Hijra eroded by Gregorian

5-1 (37) هجرية تآكلت بفعل الميلادي

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5261741.html

 

5-2(38) ヒジュラ暦1400年(西暦1980年)前後

5-2(38) Around Hijra 1400 (Gregorian 1980)

5-2 (38) حول الهجرة 1400 (ميلادي 1980)

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5262389.html

 

5-3(39) イラクのクウェイト進攻と湾岸戦争(西暦1990年、ヒジュラ暦1410年)

5-3(39) Iraq invasion to Kuwait & Gulf War (AD 1990-91, Hijra 1410)

غزو العراق 5-3 (39) للكويت وحرب الخليج (1990-1991 م، ه 1410)

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5262950.html

 

5-4(40) うっぷん晴らしとしっぺ返しの悲劇

5-4(40) Tragedy of blowing steam off and retaliation

5-4 (40) مأساة تهب قبالة البخار والانتقام

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5263602.html

 

5-5(41) 大転換する歴史に取り残されるパレスチナ

5-5(41)  Palestine left behind in paradigm shift

5-5 (41) فلسطين تركت وراءها في نقلة نوعية

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5264223.html

 

5-6(42) 二度にわたりノーベル平和賞を受賞したイスラエル首相

5-6(42) Israeli prime ministers received Novel Prize twice

تلقى 5-6 (42) رئيس الوزراء الاسرائيلي جائزة الرواية مرتين

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5264862.html

 

5-7(43) 二つの予言:「歴史の終わり」と「文明の衝突」

5-7(43) Two books of prediction: “The End of History and the Last Man” & ”The Clash of Civilization and the Remaking of World Order”

5-7 (43) كتابان التنبؤ: "نهاية التاريخ والإنسان الأخير" و "صدام الحضارات وإعادة صنع النظام العالمي"

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5265449.html

 

 

第6章:イスラームテロの系譜

Chapter 6: Genealogy of Islamic terrorism

الفصل 6: علم الأنساب من الإرهاب الإسلامي

 

6-1(44) イスラームテロの萌芽

6-1(44) Sprout of Islamic terrorism

6-1 (44) برعم من الإرهاب الإسلامي

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5266046.html

 

6-2(45) やすやすと国境を越えるイスラームテロ

6-2(45) Terrorism crosses the border easily

6-2 (45) الإرهاب يعبر الحدود بسهولة

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5266656.html

 

6-3(46) 世界を震撼させた911同時多発テロ

6-3(46) Shuddering September 11

6-3 (46) الإرتجاف 11 سبتمبر

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5267202.html

 

6-4(47) 悪の枢軸イラクとの戦争(2003年)

6-4(47) War against Iraq, axis of evil

6-4 (47) الحرب ضد العراق، محور الشر

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5267775.html

 

6-5(48) 敵と味方を峻別する一神教

6-5(48) Monotheism distinguishing ally and enemy

6-5 (48) التوحيد الحليف المميز والعدو

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5268310.html

 

6-6(49) もう沢山!長期政権に倦んだ大衆

6-6(49) Kefaya ! People bored with long dictatorship

6-6 (49) كفاية! الناس بالملل مع الديكتاتورية الطويلة

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5268867.html

 

6-7(50) 「アラブの春」の訪れ

6-7(50) Arab spring has come

6-7 قد حان (50) الربيع العربي

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5269391.html

 

6-8(51) 短かった春の宴

6-8(51) Short spring banquet

6-8 (51) قصير مأدبة الربيع

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5269908.html

 

6-9(52) 混迷深まる中東

6-9(52) Deepened chaos in the Middle East

6-9 (52) تعمق الفوضى في الشرق الأوسط

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5270439.html

 

6-10(53) シリア情勢:敵の敵は味方か敵か?

6-10(53) Syria: Is enemy of enemy ally or another enemy?

6-10 (53) سوريا: هل العدو من حليف العدو أو عدو آخر؟

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5271039.html

 

 

エピローグ

Epilogue

الخاتمه

 

7-1(54) 東と東の遭遇

7-1(54) Middle East meets Far East

7-1 (54) الشرق الأوسط يلتقي الشرق الأقصى

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5271607.html

 

7-2(55) 増え続ける中東の難民

7-2(55) Increasing refugees

7-2 (55) لاجئ زيادة

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5272159.html

 

7-3(56) 見果てぬ平和

7-3(56)  Unfulfilled peace

7-3 (56) سلام حبرا على ورق

http://ocin-japan.dreamlog.jp/archives/5272699.html

 

荒葉一也

       E-mail; areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp

       Tel/Fax; 042-360-1284, 携帯; 090-9157-3642

 




drecom_ocin_japan at 09:14コメント(0) 
記事検索
月別アーカイブ
タグクラウド
QRコード
QRコード
  • ライブドアブログ