中東の戦後70年

2018年01月14日

Home Page: http://ocininitiative.maeda1.jp/EnglishTop.html

 

(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)

(Table of contents)

 

 

By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp

 

1-5(11) Israel independence(3): Palestinian Arabs extruded by incoming Jewish immigrants

 

11イスラエル国旗
The Jewish population of the world is approximately 14 million. Most of them live in the US and Israel. Jewish population in Israel is 6.3 million, equivalent to 45% of the total. They consist of the third- quarter of the country's population of 8.5 million.

 

However, Jews were not so numerous during the Palestinian era before Israel's founding. The total population of Palestine in the early 1920s immediately after the World War I was 750,000, of which the Jews were about only 80,000. The ratio of the total population was only 10%. Compared with current figure, the number was one 80th, and the ratio was about one eighth.

 

With the support of the Zionism movement and the Balfour Declaration, numerous Jews from all over Europe moved to Palestine, or "the land of Zion" before and after the World War I. It was called "Aliyah".  Nearly 200,000 people were rushing into Palestine during the first and fourth Aliyah from the late nineteenth century to the 1920s. When the Holocaust of Nazis in Germany began, the Jews escaped from Europe. Most of them headed to the US. The rest moved to Israel, and its number reached 250 thousand (Fifth Aliyah). As a result, the total population of Palestine, which was 750 thousand immediately after World War I, doubled to 1.5 million during just after 20 years.

 

The land of Palestine was not so wide. It was not a barren desert only. The land that could be cultivated has already been cultivated by Arabs who were indigenous people, and sheep and camels were grazing on land unsuitable for cultivation.

 

The newly migrated Jewish immigrant needed the farmland at first. They were relatively poor in the Jewish community in Europe. Needless to say that people look for new horizon because of poverty. In contrast, rich people do not think about emigration. Relatively wealthy Jews who had a plan to migrate abroad aimed at rich developed countries such as the United States, not Palestine.

 

How did Jewish in Palestine get the farmland? Did the Jews kick out the indigenous Arab farmers by force? No. If Israel had own independent nation like now, they could clear off Arabs by force. But the Jews of those days have no such power. The means they took was to buy the land from the landlord. Arab farmers are peasant farmers and the land belongs to absentee landlords of the Ottoman Empire.

 

The Jewish settlers showed a lot of money and bought the land from the absentee landlord. It was unlikely that they had emigrated with such a lot of money. It was a rich brotherhood who remained in Europe like Lord Rothschild, or a donation from a successful brother in the United States. Some of rich Jews stayed in Europe, or Jews with talent and academic background moved to the United States. Most Jews who emigrated to Palestine were poor people who had no money, no talent and no education. Jews who escaped Russia's Pogrom (Pogrom means persecution against Jews, and "destruction or destruction in Russia) in 1909 settled the joint farm "Kibbutz". Kibbutz was the cooperative agricultural society combined with socialism and Zionism. New type of firms prevailed to other Jewish settlements.

 

When they acquired the land, next step was the eviction of the Arab farmers. Arabs could not complain because land ownership was the rights of Jewish immigrants. Arab farmers either had to be employed as laborer by the Jews, or if they did dislike it, they would have had to move to neighboring Arab countries such as Jordan. They became refugees under the umbrella of their relatives in Jordan. It was the beginning of Palestinian economic refugees.

 

Political refugees, however, who occupy the majority of Palestinian refugees had grown in the Arab-Israeli War. Approximately 700,000 Jews flowed in during three years after Israel independence, almost the same number of Palestinian Arabs became political refugees and rushed into Jordan. Arabs were pushed out by Jews. In refugees, there were two families, The Shatilas and the Al-Yassins who had been living next to each other in the town of Tulkarm on the West Bank of the Jordan River. The father of Shatilas was a teacher and the father of Al-Yassins was a doctor. Shatila escaped to Jordan with his sixteen-years son, Amin.


(To be continued ----)

 



drecom_ocin_japan at 11:57コメント(0) 

2018年01月07日

Home Page: http://ocininitiative.maeda1.jp/EnglishTop.html

 

(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)

(Table of contents)

 

 

By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp

 

Chapter 1 Wave of nationalism and socialism (1945-1956)

 

1-4(10) Israel independence(2): Who is a Jew?

No one will object to saying "Israel is a Jewish country." But defining the "Jewish" is awkward. If the Old Testament tells the truth, the Jewish root are Abraham's clan who settled in Canaan (Promised Land) of Palestine around the 20th century BC. They belong ethnically to the Sem family and are the same lineage with the Arab peoples. The Jews would not like to be equated with Arabs, but they are the same strain in terms of biology or folklore.

 

The ancient Israelis believed in monotheistic Judaism, and lived together honoring religious leaders as prophets. Moses, who came back to Canaan with his clan detained in Egypt in the 13th century BC, was one of such prophets. In the 10th century BC, King David and his son Solomon built a temple in Jerusalem and prospered as the kingdom of Israel, and then the kingdom of Judah. However since the 6th century BC it was often invaded by the neighboring Babylonian Kingdom. The Kingdom of Juda was conquered, and the Jews were forcibly relocated from Jerusalem to Babylonia (Babylon captivity). Later, they were released by Cyrus II, the founder of Achaemehid Dynasty in Persia who destroyed Neo-Babylonian Empire. They returned to Jerusalem and reconstructed the temple of Jerusalem under the rule of the Egyptian dynasty, and Kingdom of Judah had controlled under the reign of the Roman Empire from the BC to the AD.

 

As a result of frequent revolt against the Roman Empire in around AD 100s, Jews were prohibited from living in Jerusalem, being thoroughly repressed by Roman Emperor Hadrian in 135 AD. From this time long Jews' discrete (Diaspora) began. They had to settle in various places of Europe.

 

Semian Jews who kept their own religion were despised and persecuted in Europe where Christianity deeply rooted. The stigma of Judas who betrayed Christ was burdened on the Jews. Christians constrained the Jews to "ghetto" (residential district) and pressed them the dirty job.

 

One of such job was the moneylending. In the medieval Christian society moneylender was regarded as a filthy occupation. It was because the financial business in which human beings were bound by greed. Greed to gold was incompatible with the purity of religion. To avoid the moneylending business was not only in Christianity but also in Islam. Islam was more strictly interpreted and even now Islamic society thinks that the interest is "Al-Haram (repelling)" and is prohibited to take interest. As shown in Shakespeare's play "Merchant of Venice", the moneylending business at that time was monopolized by Jewish people. In Europe, even highly educated man like Shakespeare hated Jews. Such a stereotypical Jewish view remained until the first half of the 20th century, and the biggest tragedy was the Holocaust by Nazis in Germany.

 

Looking back over the history of Judea as described above, It is extremely difficult to answer the question "Who is a Jew?" in a single word.

 

First of all Jews can not be described as one ethnic group in biological meaning. There is no doubt that their origin was Semites. But the current Jews who have survived Diaspora for nearly 2,000 years do not share the DNA’s identity.

 

Can we define the Jews in religion called Judaism? No. Those who convert from Judaism to Christianity also refer to themselves as Jews. Most Jews in the United States are Christians. Jews are ambiguous in terms of religion.

 

Eventually, Jewish people are whom other people say that "You are a Jew" or who say that “I am a Jew”. This is a synonym repetition and is not definition of Judaism.

 

In Europe until the early modern days the Europeans tried to look down Jews and confine them in the ghetto. The Jews who didn’t want to live as Christian but as Judaism lived quietly in a corner of society concealing of Jews.

10アインシュタイン
 

However, when Jewish bankers like Lord Rothschild had the ability to play a role in warfare, or one genius in natural science such as Albert Einstein appeared in the history, it occurred that the movement to make the identity clearer among the Jews. All those who self-termed Jews was regarded as Jews. After the World War II through the Holocaust, all of Jews were assured safety and prosperity. They, therefore, declared themselves as Jews in public. In that sense, among the Jews immigrating to Israel from Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union, there is no doubt that some of them are nothing to do with the genuine Jews.

 

Israel was established by genuine Jews and non-genuine Jews who self-proclaimed as Jews. Israel is still growing and expanding.


(To be continued ----)



drecom_ocin_japan at 17:14コメント(0) 

2017年12月23日

Home Page: http://ocininitiative.maeda1.jp/EnglishTop.html

 

(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)

 

(Table of contents)

 

 

By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp

 

Chapter 1 Wave of nationalism and socialism (1945-1956)

9Israel

3. Israel independence(1): Jewish motherland construction movement

 

In this chapter the title "Wave of nationalism and socialism" means the movement of independence  of the Arab countries after World War II. The Jews had begun construction of their home country a little bit earlier. The Israeli country of the Jew who consistently dropped the biggest shadow under the history of the Arab countries in the post-war era emerged in quite different circumstance from Arabic ones in the long history of the Middle East.

 

So-called the Jews were expelled Palestine two thousand years ago and had to move in Europe. They were diaspora (discrete) people. They suffered persecution in every cities and towns in Europe and had bitter taste of the hardships of life until 1946. They finally returned to the ancestral land of Palestine. The epic historical drama has already been spoken in many books. As you can read the details from such books, it is not necessary to repeat again. I would like to briefly touch on the Israeli founding history since the 20th century.

 

In the late nineteenth century, the storm of anti-Semitism campaign blow up in Europe. The Sem is a generic name of ethnic groups that use Semian languages originating in the Middle East, such as Arabic and Hebrew. But anti-semitism in Europe at that time was anti-Jew itself. People of Diaspora were trapped in Jewish residential districts called "ghetto" in various cities. They have been discriminated and lived with bated breath. The incidents targeted Jews, however, occurred one after another in the heightened anti-Semitism movement.

 

The most famous one was "Dreyfus affair" in France. In 1894, the French Army's Jewish captain Alfred Dreyfus was arrested for spying against Germany. Though the case was later proved to be a false charge, the captain acquired a notorious judgment in 1906. The 12-year-long trial conflict became a major incident that shook France. Emir Zora, great writer, disclosed the letter of impeachment of the government. It was a socio-political scandal. At the end of the 19th century, there also was another sample of anti-semitism in Russia. Jewish genocide "Pogrom" was widely spread in Russia. Pogrom was a terrible affair together with "Holocaust" in Germany during the World War II. European people hated the Jews.

 

In such circumstance, it is impossible for Jews to seek for land inside Europe. They have no choice to get homeland in abroad. So many Jews headed to the "New World" – United States of America. But some of them insisted to construct their own homeland. The politicians of European countries also believed that giving Jewish home lands outside Europe was an excellent idea to eliminate social unrest in their society. They backed Jewish idea. This was a glossy policy to oust Jews from European continent.

 

However, it was impossible to discover unmanned land that could be cultivated and could build a new state on the Earth in the 20th century. So the British government proposed them how about the central Africa colonized by UK, where already black people were living. It was not a problem because UK could bring black people to knees by force. But Theodor Herzl, the leader of the homeland construction movement, insisted on the revival of his country in Palestine where his ancestors were exiled 2,000 years ago. He advocated "Return to Israel(Zionism)”. Zionist spoke the slogan loudly; “People defunct land to landless people” The construction movement of homeland was intensified.

 

The British government was in trouble. Palestine have been under the control of Ottoman Empire and was a land where Arabs have been lived for 2,000 years and more. It was absolutely not “People defunct land”. It was obvious that conflict would arise with indigenous Arabs if forced to settle.

 

At that time a fantastic tailwind blown for the Jews. It was the outbreak of the World War I. Britain suffering from cost of the war depended on the Jewish rich, Lord Rothschild. Lord Rothschild, in return, asked the UK to build a home land in Palestine. That was the Balfour Declaration (see Prologue Section 6 "The Triple Tongue Diplomacy of the UK - Balfour Declaration").

 

The UK won the war due to the financial support of the Jews. And the UK colonized Palestine through the Sykes-Pico Agreement with France (see Prologue Section 5 "Triple Tongue Diplomacy of the UK - Sykes · Pico Agreement"). Obstacles to the construction of Jewish home lands have been lifted.


(To be continued ----)

 



drecom_ocin_japan at 15:55コメント(0) 

2017年12月16日

Home Page: http://ocininitiative.maeda1.jp/EnglishTop.html

 

(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)

 

(Table of contents)

 

 

By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp

 

Chapter 1 Wave of nationalism and socialism (1945-1956)

 

2. Formation of the Arab League

 

World War II spanned 6 years from German invasion to Poland in 1939 and to surrender of Japan in 1945. The main battlefield was throughout Europe, Southeast Asia, Far East and the Pacific Ocean. The Middle East was escaped from war. In those days the Middle Eastern countries did not belong either to the Allied Forces nor the Triple Alliance. Except Iraq and Iran which participated as coalition forces in 1943, Turkey, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and other countries participated in 1945, when the result of the war almost apparent. The reason why the Middle East was out of the battlefield during the World War II was that Germany faced its enemies on both sides - Britain, the United States and France in Western Europe, and Soviet in Eastern Europe. So Germany could not spare its force to the Middle East.

 

8アラブ連盟
In March 1945, just before the end of the war, the Arab world's first international organization "Arab League" was formed. The Arab League was originally established with 7 countries of Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Yemen (then Northern Yemen) and Saudi Arabia. They have signed the Alexandria Protocol. The Arab League was not born with the voluntary intention of the Arab countries. It was the British strategy that had a strong influence in this area. To prevent Arab countries from participating in German side during the war, Anthony Eden, then Secretary State for War of UK suggested Arab countries to form the Arab League. The headquarters of the Arab League was placed in Cairo, Egypt, and the secretary general was appointed Egyptian diplomat. Except one-time accident when Egypt made a peace treaty by oneself with Israel 1n 1979 and was expelled from the League. Egypt rejoined the League in 1987. The number of Arab League member is now 21 countries and Palestine.

 

The circumstances of the Middle Eastern countries in the first year of post-war were as follows. As for Turkey, Iran and Egypt, three major powers in the Middle East, Turkey has transformed itself into a republic covering Asia Minor and Istanbul after the collapse of Ottoman Empire. Turkey built secularistic state like modern Western Europe nations instead of caliphate state. In Iran, Reza Shah who was a General of the Persian Cossack Brigade took over the power by the coup d'etat in 1921. He founded the Pahlavi dynasty. During postwar era, Iran has been a pro-Western dictatorship monarchy state until 1979. Egypt, one of the three big countries in the Middle East, survived World War II as Muhammad Ali Dynasty. Despite that the dynasty was half-independent state from the Ottoman Empire, UK maintained strong influence. Among other small and medium-sized countries, Iraq, Jordan and Palestine were mandated by UK, and Syria and Lebanon were under the mandate of France.

 

Saudi Arabia is the only one exception that has escaped the rule of Britain and France. The country established "Kingdom of Saudi Arabia" in 1932, and kept independence controlling the majority of the Arabian Peninsula. The reason why the country was able to maintain independence is because the UK and France did not emphasize the strategic value of the Arabian Peninsula.

 

It was the United States who was aware of the value of Saudi Arabia. The US oil company found a big oil field in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia in 1941 just when the World War II began. The United States was too wise to colonize Saudi Arabia. The United States correctly recognized the future value of oil, and aimed to secure Saudi Arabian crude oil. Just before the end of the World War II, President Roosevelt postponed his return to US after the Yalta meeting and met with King Abdulaziz of Saudi Arabia on the ship of the Suez Canal. This fact was a clear evidence that US put weight on Saudi Arabia. (See Prologue 1 "Suez Canal Great-Bitter Lake Meeting")


(To be continued ----)

 



drecom_ocin_japan at 21:46コメント(0) 

2017年12月10日

Home Page: http://ocininitiative.maeda1.jp/EnglishTop.html

 

(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)

 

(Table of contents)

 

By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp

 

Chapter 1 Wave of nationalism and socialism (1945-1956)

 

1.    Atlantic Charter

 

It is common that immediately after the beginning of the war, both parties in the war devise a concept on the postwar new order. In case of a war by two neighboring countries, it usually the annexation of the enemy's land to their own country or monetary compensation burdened by the defeated country. But as for the World War I and II, the concept of a global new order was added to them.

 

In case of World War II, when the whereabouts of victory or defeat was not yet clear, both the Allied Powers led by US and the Axis countries led by Germany had simultaneously considered postwar global new order. However, it was the Allied Powers that wrote the world order. The postwar idea by the Axis of Japan, Germany and Italy was buried and never exploited to the light. The Allied side, the victorious countries, erased completely the Axis’s idea.

Chapter1-1Roosevelt&Churchil
 

 What was the post-war idea of the Allied Powers after the world war II? In August 1941. Atlantic Charter was drawn up by US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. It was two years later after the UK and France declared the war against Germany in 1939. At that time, the United States supported the British and French, but not participating in the war. US declared the war against Axis Countries, namely Germany, Italy and Japan on the next day after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.

 

The "Atlantic Charter" declared by the United States and the United Kingdom was made up of eight articles in total. In Article 1 to Article 3, it was written as follows.

“First, their countries seek no aggrandizement, territorial or others;

Second, they desire to see no territorial changes that do not accord with the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned;

Third, they respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live; and they wish to see sovereign rights and self-government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them;”

 

The eight principal points of the Charter were:

1.    No territorial gains were to be sought by the United States or the United Kingdom;

2.    Territorial adjustments must be in accord with the wishes of the peoples concerned;

3.    All people had a right to self-determination;

4.    Trade barriers were to be lowered;

5.    There was to be global economic cooperation and advancement of social welfare;

6.    The participants would work for a world free of want and fear;

7.    The participants would work for freedom of the seas;

8.    There was to be disarmament of aggressor nations, and a common disarmament after the war.

 

The Versailles regime (Paris Peace Conference) after World War I showed traditional characters such as colonialism, imperialism and punishment which imposed sanctions and huge compensation to the losers. The current Syria and Lebanon - so-called Levant region - were dominated by France. Jordan, Palestine and Iraq were colonized by the UK. This was based on the Sykes- Picot Agreement signed by both countries during the World War I in 1916 (Please refer to “Triple tongue diplomacy” of Prologue 4, 5 & 6). Germany was also subject to severe disarmament along with territorial disposition. The fierce punishment, however, against Germany caused Nazism and resulted in World War II 20 years later. The Atlantic charter was a lesson of this failure, and was the fruits of US’s idealism which continues up till now.

 

For the realization of ideals, independent movement of the nation state started in the postwar Middle East. The Kingdom of Jordan and the Republic of Syria were established in 1946. The background of the formation of the two countries involves complicated circumstances and could not simplified as nation-state. The Kingdom of Jordan was a product of the McMahon-Hussein Correspondence between the UK and prestigious Hassim royal family. And the Syrian Republic was a very vulnerable republic, and was a dummy country of France. France wanted to continue as imperialistic ruler.

 

Following Jordan and Syria, new nation countries were born one after another in the Middle East. But the Middle East was a world prevailing the struggle of ethnicity, religion and political ideology without harmony. It was a battle fields of proxy war of the East-West conflict between the US and the Soviet Union.


(To be continued ----)



drecom_ocin_japan at 13:27コメント(0) 
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