中東の戦後70年

2017年12月03日

Home Page: OCIN INITIATIVE

 

(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)

 

(Table of contents)

 

 

By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp

 

Prologue

 

6. Britain's triple tongue diplomacy during World War I (3)
(3) The Balfour Declaration

 

In triple tongue diplomacy, the most famous one would be the "Balfour Declaration", which was made in the last of the three promises. The Balfour Declaration was mentioned in a letter sent from Arthur Balfour, UK’s Foreign Secretary, to Lord Walter Rothschild, a leader of the British Jewish community, in November 1917. The declaration announced support for the establishment or a “national home” for the Jewish people in Palestine.

 

After the Roman Emperor Hadrian finally suppressed the rebellion of Jews in the year 135 AD, a long history of the Jews' 'diaspora' (discrete) began. Jewish people had been banned from entering Jerusalem. They dreamed of re-establishment of a Jewish home land. They had been enduring the contempt and persecution of Christian people in Europe. In the 19th century they launched political Zionism campaign which meant the movement to return to the promised hometown of Zion 's land.

 

Jews became the ruler of global money in the process of prevailing capitalism from the 19th century to the 20th century. It was also an era when the financial power of the Jews affected the outcome of the war. As most of Japanese knows, Japan won the Russo-Japanese War in 1904 because the Jewish bankers in the United States bought Japanese wartime bonds. In the World War I in 1914, Judea money was the key to victory. And Rothschild was the symbol of Jewish investors. UK, troubled in money shortage, requested war funds to Rothschild and, in return, patronized the Jewish Zionism movement.

 
ロスチャイルド

In the letter sent from Balfour to Lord Rothschild as follows:
"His Majesty’s Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achivement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.

I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zinist Federation.”

 

This declaration has shown clearly the intention of the British government to support the construction of Jews colony in the Palestinian home lands. Historically speaking, the Jews had left Palestine in the first century AD. But Arabs lived in Palestine continuously for nearly two thousand years since then. It was the reason why the British government mentioned the provision that " nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine". This provision, however, has not been abided since then. Israel has widened territorial control in Palestine through four wars – 1948 Arab-Israel War, Suez Crisis in 1956, Six-days War in 1967 and Yom Kippur War in 1978. At present Israel is continuing to expand their settlements. On the contrary, Arabs are just staring at it without effective counterattack,

 

Three promises could be read each other as such: The Balfour Declaration was "if you(Jews) lend us the necessary money for war, we(UK government) will give you the country for Jews. McMahon-Hussein Correspondence was "If you(Arabs) disrupt behind the Ottoman Empire, you would be supplied necessary money and weapons. When the war was over, the Arabic caliphate Islamic state would be established. The third and last promise – Sykes-Picot Agreement which marked the line on the map by Britain and France was "Once the war is over, let's divide the Middle East by two countries". It was obvious to everyone that these three promises were contradict each other and would lay the conflict in the future. But the UK on imminent war thought differently. “Let it(the conflict of the interest) be.” This was the true intension of UK diplomacy.

 

The priority of the three promises of the UK and France is that the Sykes-Picot Agreement was the top priority. Then the Balfour Declaration was the second priority, McMahon-Hussein Correspondence was least priority. The history after the World War I indicated clearly the fact and truth. The intention of the Arab and Islamic people who should be the main players in the Middle East was thoroughly ignored.    Arab and Islamic people were exploited by Western powers. It was the roots of the trouble in the Middle East after World War II, which continues now.


(To be continued ----)

 



drecom_ocin_japan at 10:59コメント(0) 

2017年11月26日

Home Page: OCIN INITIATIVE

 

(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)

 

(Table of contents)

 

By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp

 

Prologue

 

5. Britain's triple tongue diplomacy during World War I (2)

(2) Sykes-Picot Agreement

サイクス・ピコ協定(1916)

The second piece of UK’s "triple tongue diplomacy" following McMahon-Hussein Correspondence was the secret agreement so-called "Sykes-Picot agreement" to divide Arabic territory of the Ottoman Empire by Britain and France (and Russia).

 

British diplomatic advisor Mark Sykes and French diplomat Francois Georges Picot drafted about the division of the Ottoman Empire at the end of 1915 when the victory of the UK, French and their allies became sure. Russia also joined with the secret agreement. Three countries have mutually signed the agreement officially known “Asia Minor Agreement” in May 1916, in Petrograd, Russia. This agreement was generally called "Sykes-Picot Agreement" after taking their names. It was just before the uprising of Hussein, Sharif of Makkah, according to the McMahon-Hussein Correspondence (see previous section).

 

In this secret agreement for territorial division, the UK gained Southern Syria and South Mesopotamia.  France became the ruler of Syria, southern Anatolia and Mosul district of Iraq. Russia was given the Black Sea coast. In more detail in the Middle Eastern region, the UK and France divided the Mediterranean coast. From southern Anatolia to Beirut were directly governed by France. France also got the power in the northern Mesopotamian region from Damascus to Aleppo and Mosul. Compared with the current border line, the French power sphere will be from the southern part of Turkey throughout Syria, plus northern Iraq and Lebanon.

 

Meanwhile, the UK controlled directly the area from Baghdad to Basra adding the Kuwait and the south of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf. The desert zone spreading from Amman to the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula were under UK’s influence. This area covers Jordan, southern part of Iraq and GCC countries-Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and UAE.

 

Palestine, which became the biggest fire species in the Middle East, was regarded as the co-governorate of UK and France.

 

"Sykes-Picot Agreement" was a product of the competition to acquire the imperial colonies by the three countries of the UK, France and Russia. Unfortunately the interest of Arab nation, who had maintained a moderate peace and order throughout the region for thousands of years, had never been taken into consideration. It was a secret agreement between three empires. Only one year after the signing of the agreement, Russian revolution had broken out in 1917. The secret agreement was revealed by the Soviet revolutionary government. It was natural feeling that the Arabs, who asked for honest fulfillment of the "McMahon-Hussein Correspondence", have shown antipathy against UK & France.

 


(To be continued ----)

 





drecom_ocin_japan at 16:34コメント(0) 

2017年11月18日

Home Page: OCIN INITIATIVE

 

(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)

 

(Table of contents)

 

 

By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp

 

Prologue

 

4. Britain's triple tongue diplomacy during World War I (1)

 

When talking about the Middle East after the World War II, it is inevitable to mention about  "triple tongue diplomacy" by Britain during the World War I.

 

World War I was a war between two groups. One is UK, France and their allies including Japan. The other side is Germany, Austria and Ottoman Empire. UK, France and its allies defeated German allies. In 1919 the Versailles Treaty was concluded at the Paris Peace Conference on postwar treatments led by UK and France. This treaty was extremely harsh for the defeated Germany and Ottoman Empire. Germany ceded its territory and also was forced a huge compensation. It was the system called the winner-take-all. The UK and France also did not forgive the Ottoman Empire. Except for Asia Minor  UK and France forfeited Levant, Tigris & Euphrates regions from Ottoman Empire, where she has been the lord in the long history. It is a finish of colonial acquisition games by the European imperialistic nations continuing from the 19th century. The Arab people who has been living in that area for a long time has been totally neglected.

 

During the World War I UK made three promises – the McMahon-Hussein Correspondence, the Sykes- Pico Agreement and the Balfour Declaration. They were the roots of all evil at present in the Middle East. Each of these three promises were concluded with different partners, and totally conflicted each other. Therefore, these series of UK diplomacy were criticized as triple tongue diplomacy. It was not only critically acknowledged, but it brought about disaster to the whole region of the Middle East, and the disaster has been continuing for one hundred years.

 

(1)  McMahon-Hussein Correspondence

The first of these three promises is a series of ten letters between Henry McMahon, the British High Commissioner in the Sultanate of Egypt, and Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Makkah from July 1915 to March 1916. As the reward of the war against Ottoman Empire, McMahon promised independence of   Arabs. He wrote a letter to Hussein on 24 October 1915, saying as follows.

 

"I am empowered in the name of the Government of Great Britain to give the followint assuraances and make the following reply to your letter:

 Subject to the above modifications, Greate Britain is prepared to recongnize and support the Independence of the Arabs within the territories included in the limits and boundaries proposed by the Sherif of Mecca”

 

Hussein was born in historic house as a 39th direct descendant of the Prophet Muhammad. He was the Sherif of Makkah and the King of the Hizjaz, reigning the Red Sea coastal zone.  Hussein, who was supported by UK, ordered his sons Abdallah and Faisal to attack the Ottoman Empire. Abdullah later became the King of Jordan and grandfather of Abdallah II. And Faisal became the King of Iraq. Two sons fought guerrilla war against Ottoman Empire.

 

アラビアのロレンス
It was this moment that the British military officer Thomas Edward Lawrence, so-called "Lawrence of Arabia", worked as a operation staff of King Faisal. The name of "Lawrence of Arabia" might give the impression that Lawrence himself created his own tactics and led ignorant Arabs to the victory. However, this was wholly illusion made by UK. He was merely a liaison officer of the British Army. His duty was the agency of military logistics such as war chest, weapons and ammunition supplied from the UK to the Arabs.

 

He himself believed that his country would faithfully keep the promise of the McMahon-Hussein Correspondence. However, after the war, the land actually allocated to the Arabs was far from their expectation. T.E. Lawrence lost the trust of Arabs. His heart was broken and he returned to UK. He afterwards lost his own life by a motorcycle accident.

 

In the Arab world, Lawrence is regarded as "a tool of the UK" and has not been appreciated at all. On the other hand, Western people who is the winner of the war created a hero at one’s descretion.


(To be continued ----)

 

 



drecom_ocin_japan at 15:39コメント(0) 

2017年11月12日

Home Page: OCIN INITIATIVE

 

(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)

 

(Table of contents)

 

 

By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp

 

Prologue

 

3. Three identities in the Middle East

 

From now on, I will follow the history of the Middle East for 70 years after the war according to my own opinion. I think that there are three identities in the Middle East. The first one is "blood" identity. The second is the "religious" identity. And the last one is "ideology” identity. I will frequently refer these three identities in each chapter. I, therefore, would like to briefly explain hereof.

 

Firstly, "blood" identity is a biological identity, contemporary, called as DNA. This is given naturally when we were born as a human being. The identity of "blood" is "race". The largest race in the Middle East is "Arab", but in the Middle East some other ethnic groups such as the Turkish and Persian  ethnicity coexist (Although there is the definition of "Jewish", but Jewish can not be said to be "race" in biological meaning).

 

The ethnicity, namely race, is a rather big concept. Blood relationship connect each other.The closest blood relationship is parent and child, brothers and sisters, which is called "family". If you expand to relationships such as uncle, aunt, cousin, etc, it will be "relatives". When covers distant relatives, it will be "clan". Furthermore, "tribe" overwhelming "clans", and eventually reaching the "ethnic" category.

 

In a modern society where urbanization has progressed, as described by the word "nuclear family", nowadays, the connection of blood is limited in family members or relatives. "Clan" or "tribe" is almost absolute. The word "ethnic group", which is the biggest concept, is still frequently used today, but it is often used as a political slogan. On the other hand, in the Middle East (especially among the Arab peoples) not only the top powerful persons but also ordinary citizens use widely the identity of this "blood".

 

The identity of "blood" is a congenital one inherited as DNA, too, but on the other hand, the identity of "religion” and "ideology" gets acquired after his berth.

 

Regarding religion in the Middle East, Islam has overwhelming influence. Not only Arab ethnic groups, but also Turkish people and Persian races are mostly Islamic Muslims. Of course, in the Middle East there are Christian believers such as the Egyptian Coptic or Jewish country Israel, too. Both Muslims, Christianity and Judaism have a common character of monotheism. They are Abrahamic religion. But because of that reason there is a long history of struggling each other and hatred. Especially the confrontation between the Islamic states and the Jewish state Israel cannot be foreseen the future.

 

In addition, Islam in modern Middle East has a confrontation between Sunni and Shiite sects. Furthermore even among Sunni there are conflicts between fundamentalist and moderate. Needless to say, the conflict is common in religious fields not only Islam but also Christianity. Look at the religious war between Catholic and Protestant in Middle Ages. But in the Middle East where the modern Western Europe civilization has penetrated, the conflict of religion is still a big problem and even sharpened in the modern age of globalization that the Internet has developed.

 

The third identity is political or economic ideology with principle and assertion. After being relieved from the bondage of religion in Western Europe in Middle Ages, the conflict of ideology has appeared. Through the era of Industrial Revolution and mercantilism, ideology has transformed into capitalism. In the historical process, inequality of wealth distribution became a problem. The socialism and communism ideology have spread globally.

 

The appearance of the Soviet Socialist Federation (Soviet Union) by the Russian Revolution had spread socialism worldwide. Western capitalism and Soviet socialism originally had mutually incompatible nature. But in order to combat the totalitarianism of Nazis in Germany, they fought together to overthrow Nazism. And World War II was over. As soon as war is over, US-led West alliance conflicted sharply with Soviet-led East alliance. It was called "the Cold War era". Even if we call it "the Cold War", in fact, hot wars as surrogate wars by both side occurred allover the world. The Middle East has also become one of the battle front. Before liberated from the spell of religious Islam, the Middle East has caught up in the ideological war. This has expanded the disorder moreover.

 

I would like to consider again the order of time series between "blood", "religion" and "ideology". "Blood" is inherent and genetically native as DNA. In comparison, "religion" and "ideology" are acquired after berth. In most cases, "religion" sticks to children during uninhibited childhood. Christian babies are baptized, and Muslim babies grow up hearing lullaby of the prayer words "Azan" from the mosque. In contrast, "ideology” is imprinted into the brains of individuals through education (especially through higher education). In other words, these three elements are taken in order beginning with congenital "blood", then "religion", and "Ideology" in the last. This is a natural order.

 

Looking at the national level, the ethnic nation, the religious states and ideological states of capitalism or socialism appears from time to time. In Western Europe three identities have appeared separately in history with a considerable time span. They never appeared simultaneously. However, in the Middle East three identities have been appeared in parallel in the short history of 70 years after World War II. Disorder and tragedy in the Middle East were born in such circumstance. This is what I want to say.

 

(To be continued ----)

 



drecom_ocin_japan at 09:33コメント(0) 

2017年11月04日

Home Page: OCIN INITIATIVE

 

(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)

 

(Table of contents)

 

 

By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp

 

Prologue

 

2. Middle East connecting Europe and Asia

EurasiaMap2
 

Eurasia is the largest continent in the world. As its English name indicates it is a word synthesizing Euro and Asia. Where is the boundary between Europe and Asia? It is almost a common view that one of the boundaries is the Bosporus Strait in Turkey. The west side of the Bosporus is Istanbul, and Uskudar on the other side of the strait is the entrance to Asia. The Bosporus Bridge, now called July 15 Martyrs’ Bridge is exactly a bridge connecting Europe and Asia. And the area of Anatolia Plateau from Uskudar to Turkey's capital Ankara is called "Asia Minor".

 

Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom used the name of Asia in the Age of Discovery in the 15th century. These European countries competed each other to monopolize the trade. They battled not only in India but also in Indonesia. They made strengthen the colonial rule. The geographical concept of Asia was established in this process. It was a one-sided decision by the Europeans. Asians, however, did not recognize the one Asia. I am confident that all of Japanese does not see Islamic Arabs as the same Asians.

 

But why people in the Middle East themselves sees Japanese as the same Asians? It is no doubt that the reason why people in the Middle East view the Far East as the one Asia is the imprinting by Europe or the United States when they establish the world order in modern history. It is obvious if you look at the grouping of the countries for various sports competitions. For example, Asian League of the World Cup Football covers the countries from the Far East to the Middle East countries. In other words, the definition of Asia means the areas except Europe.

 

The area Europeans named "Asia" occupies a large part of the Eurasian Continent. The Eurasian continents extends from the east longitude 10 degrees, where the Portugal is, and 180 degrees of the Bering Strait. Istanbul, the eastern end of Europe, is located at 30 degrees east longitude. This means that five-sixth of the Eurasian continent is Asia, Europe is only one sixth.

 

Asia is so wide that Europeans could not bundle Asia as one region, They, therefore, divided Asia into several regions. It was a very simple and unilateral division from the viewpoint of their geographical perspective. They named each regions as the Near East, Middle East, South Asia, South East Asia and Far East. Far East means the end of the east. It is a very rude naming for the people living in that region. Suppose that If the history was reversed, Britain, France might have been called "Far West" at the end of the west!

 

Anyway, when crossing the Bosphorus Strait, you are now in "Near East". It covers the Anatolian peninsula. And the eastern Levant (nowadays Syria and Lebanon), Israel, Iraq and Iran consist  "Middle East". In modern history, however, "Near East" and "Middle East" are united and called "Middle East". India and Pakistan are called South Asia.

 

Europeans desired to trade with South Asia, South East Asia and Far East countries directly. But unfortunately, the onshore route had to rely on relay trade with the Ottoman Empire or the Persian Empire. Free trade was hindered in those days. In the 15th century to the 17th century, The biggest reason why European countries embarked on the ocean is to get peppers and tea in Indian Ocean coast or obtain gold, silver and China pottery from Japan (Zipang). Europeans found the offshore route instead of onshore route through the Cape Hope at the southern tip of African Continent by sailing ship. Age of Discovery has begun.

 

European countries advanced from South Asia to Far East Asia along the coast of the Indian Ocean and South China Sea. It is an invasion dots by dots. The Age of Discoveries was an age of trading. At that time European countries themselves did not have own competitive goods to export to India, Southeast Asia, Java, etc,. Europeans purchased local products at one port and resell them at the other port resulting big margin. Sometimes they looted the precious products from the local and brought them back to home. Many merchants got huge wealth. When it came to industrial revolution with accumulated wealth into weapons in the 19th century, trade became as nominal ones. Asian colonization has started.

 

Ottoman Empire gradually eroded through Western colonial invasion. France built the Suez Canal in 1869, after which the UK became a substantial ruler of the Canal. In this way, the route, from the Mediterranean to the Suez Canal and then through the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean, has been secured and the reign of Asia by Western powers has become firm. Finally Ottoman Empire was defeated in the First World War from 1914 to 17, the vast Asian region ranging from the Middle East to Southeast Asia was dominated by Western colonialists of the UK, France and the Netherlands. They monopolized the wealth of Asia.

 


(To be continued ----)

 



drecom_ocin_japan at 10:18コメント(0) 
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