(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)

(Table of contents)


By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp


Chapter 2 Global wave – The end of colonial era and the emerging two super powers


2-2(16) La Marseillaise & The Internationale


World War II was a war that the United States, Britain and France of the capitalist state and the Soviet Union of the socialist state jointly fought against the totalitarian states, Germany and Japan. The world that experienced twice world warfare in less than half a century established the United Nations and pursued permanent peace.


The UN Charter stated in Article 1 that it aims to "maintain international peace and security". Everyone had refused war again. But the peace of the West and East camps with different ideology quickly failed.  "Hot war" in which both sides directly fought each other was barely avoided. Bur the glare of "cold war" began. Cold war has prevailed globally. In return, local "hot wars" have taken place in various parts of the world in the form of proxy war between the western capitalist countries and the Soviet Union.


In the Middle East, revolutions took in the form of military coup. In Egypt it was a confrontation between Gamal Abdul Nasser with Association of Free Officers which were supported by the Soviet Union and the royalists supported by the UK. In Syria it was a fighting struggle between minority tribes supported by France and the majority tribe who received military assistance of the Soviet Union. France supported minority tribes to keep substantive power.

At that time the storm of socialism by the Soviet Union roared globally under the name of class struggle. In July 1952, a revolution took place in Egypt. In May of the same year, Mayday incident occurred in Japan in the Far East. There was a chorus of international labor song " The Internationale". Even in Syria, anti-French urban intelligentsia sang the same song. Against Syrian people, the French soldiers stationed sang loudly with the national anthem La Marseillaise every day at the Flag Hoisting ceremony of the garrison.



Both lyrics are amazingly similar each other as follows.


Lyrics of "The Internationale":

Stand up, damned of the Earth

Stand up, prisoners of starvation

Reason thunders in its volcano

This is the eruption of the end.

Of the past let us make a clean slate

Enslaved masses, stand up, stand up.

The world is about to change its foundation

We are nothing, let us be all.


This is the final struggle

Let us group together, and tomorrow

The Internationale

Will be the human race.?



Lyrics of "La Marseillaise":

Arise children of the fatherland

The day of glory has arrived

Against us tyranny's

Bloody standard is raised

Listen to the sound in the fields

The howling of these fearsome soldiers

They are coming into our midst

To cut the throats of your sons and consorts

To arms citizens Form your battalions

March, march

Let impure blood

Water our furrows



No one will not be surprised that both lyrics are too similar. To tell the truth, both lyrics were written at almost same time in France. Internationale was originally written as the lyrics of "La Marseillaise" at the Paris Commune in 1871. Melody was composed a few decades later. On the other hand, "La Marseillaise" was written and composed at the French Revolution.


It could say that both lyrics were twins. The content of the lyrics is too harsh to keep up with the sense of modern people. French people used to sing "La Marseillaise" in case of events or events that require a sense of unity. It may be worth to ask how they feel themselves when sing loudly the song. The lyrics are too aggressive to be peaceful.


In Syria, French soldiers sang "La Marseillaise" inside of the garrison. And outside the garrison, local Arabs sang "Internationale". To whom the French soldiers Appealed singing “To arms citizens Form your battalions / March, march”? As for local Arabs, Enemy in the lyrics was clear. It was France.


Needless to say, that which side was inspired. The spirit of the French soldiers was wilted and retreated. It was the Soviet Union who came into Syria after France. The Soviet Union borrowed the Tartus port on the Mediterranean coast for a military purpose. Since the days of the Russian Empire, Russia has always been obsessed with the southward policy, seeking an ice-free port. In the Black Sea there was Sebastopol military port. But from there to the Mediterranean, they had to go through the Bosporus Straight in Turkey. Tartus military port was a bridgehead in the Mediterranean for the Soviet Union. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, It is no doubt that Tartus is still an essential military port for the Russian Republic.


(To be continued ----)


drecom_ocin_japan at 10:53コメント(0) 




(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)


(Table of contents)


By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp


Chapter 2 Global wave – The end of colonial era and the emerging two super powers


2-1(15)  Contrasting French and British colonial rule

According to the Sykes-Picot Agreement at the World War I (see prologue 5), France has got the area from southern Turkey, the whole of Syria, northern Iraq to Lebanon. And Britain got southern Iraq, Jordan, North of Arabian Peninsula and Kuwait. Both countries reigned as colonial powers in their respective regions.


However, the momentum of independence increased in various places after the World War II. The political system that France and the UK recognized after independence were largely different. During the World War II, France was occupied by Germany. There was no room for France to think about Middle East. By sewing the gap, Lebanon and Syria declared independence as republic states in 1941. France had not afford to interfere the independence. On the other hand, the UK has made Jordan and Iraq independent as kingdoms of the House of Hashim, which was descendants of the prophet Muhammad. The UK kept the promise according to the Hussein McMahon Correspondence (see Prologue 4).


It is an interesting fact that France acknowledged Lebanon and Syria as republic states, and the UK acknowledged Jordan and Iraq as kingdoms. One reason was due to the political system of both countries. Both countries are parliamentary democracies, but the UK is the constitutional monarchy as shown in its official state name "United Kingdom". Therefore UK people had no objection to making Jordan and Iraq as kingdoms.


In France, on the contrary, in 1789 the Bourbon dynasty was overthrown and French people established the republic state waving the three-color flag, so-called Tricolor. France had a long history as republic nation. Three colors are symbolizing the freedom, equality and philanthropy respectively. It was the reason why they allowed Syria and Lebanon as republic states. However, France did not want to lose substantial control for two countries. Therefore, in Syria, France put Alawi factions of Shiite minority tribes in power. It is a conventional means of the colonial control to leave the power for minorities as virtual rulers under colonial rule. France manipulated the minority who needed external assistance behind the scenes and created advantageous power structure by repressing or breaking the majority.


France had double face to advocate freedom, equality, and philanthropy in the front, and to manipulate the colony at will in the back. This was a contradiction of French diplomacy. The Soviet Union has struck the contradiction. As the only one socialistic country the Soviet Union deployed class struggle in the Middle East after the World War II. Socialist movement spread accompanying the movement of Arab nationalism. The Syrian republic had pierced recklessly against French intention. In response to such a situation France was obstructed by its own ideology and could not take strong action. Historically speaking, France opts to escape when everything was in confusion. In the end France asked the United States to take care of the waste. It is totally the same story as Viet Nam war being defeated by Viet Cong (Communist Party of Vietnam). France left Vietnam, and the United States fitted into the mud. It is a fact of history that France could not count on the war. In the Middle East, France has not been able to become a leading role in solving problems even the old days even now.


On the other hand, the UK procured old wisdom through the long colonial rule of the British Empire. The UK put two sons of Hussain of a descendant of prophet Muhammad who were descended from Makkah by the Saud in the king of Jordan and Iraq respectively. In the Western Europe where democracy has become widespread, the monarchy looks like old-fashioned anachronism. But in the Middle East it was still a world where tribes could make their breadth, and Islamic religion was rooted in life. Western European republican or parliamentary democracy was premature in the Middle East. The UK looked at the reality of the Middle East in cool-headedness.


During the World War I, UK military officer Thomas Edward Lawrence, famous for "Lawrence of Arabia", helped Abdullah Hussein, the second son of the Sheriff of Makkah and later the king of Jordan. T.E. Lawrence was an advisor of Abdullah, but as a matter of fact he was merely one of a secret agent of British government. In 1921, Abdullah became the ruler of the Emirates of Transjordan, and in 1946 the country became independent as Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. His son, Crown Prince Hussein was sent to UK to study at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. Sandhurst is renowned training school for young princes of royal family in the Middle East studying how to be a good emperor. UK has conciliated Hashemite into the UK’s ally.


The Hashemite was the ruler who has sent in Jordan by UK. But for ordinary Arabs it was enough that the ruler was the descendant of the Prophet Muhammad. They thought UK had given them a precious gift. An Arabic merchant in the capital city of Amman passionately welcomed the ruler. His son, Khatib who was born in 1939 when the World War II began, was still seven years old at that time and did not know the meaning of the independence of Jordan. But he clearly could remember that his father enthusiastically welcoming the new ruler.

(To be continued ----)

drecom_ocin_japan at 08:50コメント(0) 




(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)


(Table of contents)


By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp


Chapter 1 Wave of nationalism and socialism (1945-1956)


1-8(14)  Nasser mystifies the east and west


Speaking of heroes everyone acknowledges in the Arab world, it will be Saladin (Salah Ad - Din) born in Tikrit of Iraq in the 12th century. He conquered Egypt, and founded the Ayyubid Dynasty. He was a warrior who fought against the Third Crusade by British King Richard I. Saladin did not kill the war prisoners, while the crusaders killed all of the war prisoners. Because of this fact, he was loved by both his ally and enemy. And he had a name in history as a hero.


Gamal Abdul Nasser who had shown up in Egypt in the 20th century, 800 years after Saladin was also praised as hero of the Arab world. Whereas Saladin was a hero who fought against the Christian Crusaders from medieval Europe, Nasser overthrew the Egyptian monarchy of a British protectorate by the coup d'etat in 1952. He also fought against UK and French of imperialist states and has won resulting nationalization of the Suez Canal in 1956.


Born in Alexandria, a city on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, in 1918, Nasser was transferred to Sudan after graduating from the military academy and served as a major in the Arab Israeli War triggered by the Declaration of Israeli independence in 1948. When Arab suffered a fatal defeat in this war, of which Arabs called as Nakba(catastrophe), he formed the organization of the anti-British patriotism "Association of Free Officers" and exiled King Faruq I in 1952. Egypt shifted from the tyrannical system to the Republic.


Nasser, who was 34 years old at the time, gave the post of President and Prime Minister to his boss Major General Mohammed Naguib. In 1954, however, he took office as president himself through power struggle. Advocating Pan-Arabism, Nasser became at the helm and made Egypt to the leader of the Arab world. Pan-Arabism is a combination of socialism and Arab nationalism, whose origin is in the Ba’ath Party in Syria. Because of its character, Pan-Arabism was hostile to British and French colonial imperialism or US capitalism, but had a sense of affinity to the Soviet socialism.


Nasser who grabbed power burning the ideal aimed the nationalization of the Suez Canal. The Suez Canal opened in the middle of the 19th century by Ferdinand de Lesseps of France. Later the UK has acquired 44% of the Canal’s equity from Egypt who suffered debt due to lack of fiscal discipline. Same as before, the sponsor of the funding was Jewish Lord Rothschild same as before. Until the end of World War II, UK and France kept control of the Suez Canal.


 Nasser made Nikita Khrushchev of Soviet Union to ally, and constructed Aswan High Dam. Then he declared the nationalization of the Suez Canal. Britain and France fiercely rebounded against him, In 1956 they jointly with Israel opened the fire against Egypt. It was the outbreak of the Suez War. The battle itself was favorable for British-France-Israeli Joint Forces due to their state-of-the-art armaments. Israel occupied the Sinai peninsula, and the Suez Canal was closed. Eilat, a town on the tip of the Aqaba bay, was involved in the battle again after the First Arab Israeli War in 1948. When the war was over, the Egyptians disappeared from Eilat and only the Jews remained. The Palestinian peasant family, Zahara in the suburbs of Eilat became a refugee and Zahara family escaped to adjacent port town Aqaba in Jordan with eight-year-old son


International public opinion including the United States was critical all over Britain, France and Israel. As a result, Nasser lost the battle but won the diplomacy, which raised Nasser's fame in the Arab world. He was raised to one of the prominent leaders in the third world belonging neither the East nor the West. In addition to Nasser, the leaders of the Third World at that time were Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharial Nehru, Chinese Prime Minister, Zhou Enlai, President of Yugoslavia, Josip Broz Tito and Indonesian President, Sukarno. Nasser, Nehru, Zhou Enlai and Sukarno jointly held the first Asia-Africa Conference (so-called Bandung Conference) in 1955. It was the heyday of Nasser.


(To be continued ----)


drecom_ocin_japan at 11:00コメント(0) 




(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)


(Table of contents)


By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp


Chapter 1 Wave of nationalism and socialism (1945-1956)


1-7(13)  Young officers awakned by Nakba


The Arabs living in the Palestine could not keep silent against the declaration of independence of the Jewish state Israel. Adjacent Arab countries such as Egypt and Jordan were the same. In terms of number of population, the Jews at the time of declaration of independence was around six to seven hundred thousand. On the other hand, the population of Arabs surpassed 100 times. Speaking of the myths of the Old Testament, it looked like a fight between David and the Giant Goliath. The commanders on the Arab side, therefore, predicted that they will annihilate the Jewish army within 11 days.


Nonetheless, the First Arab Israeli War from 1948 to 1949 ended in Israel's overwhelming victory.  Arabs fought a disastrous defeat. Jewish regarded the war as an independent war. The reason was the difference between military force and the fighting spirit.


Certainly the number of soldiers from Arab countries were more than a hundred times higher than the Jewish ones, but in fact the military force sent to the battlefield from Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Syria and Lebanon were about 10,000, 4,500, 3,000, 2,000 and 1,000 respectively. Total number of combatants including 2,000 soldiers from other Arab countries and Palestine were only 23,000. On the other hand, the Jewish side had about 35,000 regular Haganah forces alone, as well as thousands of combatants such as Irgun and armed colonists. In terms of armament they armed with the modern weapons and had a wealth of funds sent from European and American Jewish communities. The difference in the strength of each side was obvious.


Furthermore, there was a big difference in the soldiers' fighting spirit. Jews had burning spirit for the independence. If they were defeated by war, they would face again for the fate of "diaspora (discrete)". For the Jews it was a war that could not be defeated at all. Both men and women took their weapons with them and stood up. At present Israel still has women's military service obligation. Current military service in various countries around the world is a volunteer system, and there are not many countries of compulsory military service. Even in countries where military duty is required as in South Korea, only men are subjects, and rare in countries where military service is obliged to women like Israel.


On the other hand, although the Arab side attacked Israel from all directions at the same time when the war began, the unity of the Arab Allied Army was nominal, and there was no unified command order system.  They were only a crowd of disorderly. Individual soldiers were forced to engage against the Jews with old-fashioned weapons according to the order of their superior officers, without knowing what they were fighting for and for whom. Arab soldiers were defeated everywhere in the front. They named this war "Nakba (great disaster)".


Major Nasser who became Egyptian president later also served in war and injured. Gamal Abdel Nasser was born in 1918. After graduating from the military academy in 1939, he moved to Sudan. Then he threw himself into the Egypt liberation movement during World War II. He was a young age of 30 at the time of the First Arab Israeli War. In this era, the only way that boys who could not go on to college due to poverty despite having excellent brain was to join the military academies. In military academy, they did not need to worry about food, clothing and housing. They got even salary. Furthermore, could master the latest technology, and if they had achieved excellent grades they had a chance to study abroad. For ambitious but poor young, there was no job exceeding military service.


After graduating from the military school, however, there was a tough war in the motherland betting his own life. When defeated by the first Arab Israeli War, disillusionment against motherland was overflown in the heart of Nasser who had been fighting for the sake of Egypt.


Shuji Terayama, Japanese poet, revealed nihilistic feeling in his poem;

“Striking a match / momentarily / I see the foggy ocean -/ is there a motherland / I can dedicate myself to?”


But Major Nasser was different. Along with General Naguib, he formed a secret society of anti-British patriotism, “Association of Free Officers” and aimed for a revolution.

(To be continued ----)


drecom_ocin_japan at 20:47コメント(0) 


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(Japanese Version)

(Arabic Version)


(Table of contents)



Chapter 1 Wave of nationalism and socialism (1945-1956)


By Areha Kazuya

E-mail: areha_kazuya@jcom.home.ne.jp


1-6(12)  Israeli independence(4): Independence of Israel after terrorism against UK


Terrorism means the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror, or fear, to achieve a political, religious or ideological aim. Terror accompanied with civilian victim is never permitted.  Terror usually occurs in the battle of the nation's independence. The ruler or authority of the time sees terror as a criminal act disturbing social order. The anti-governmental power, on the contrary, argues that terrorism is one of the legitimate measures for achieving the object. There is no compromise between the two assertions.


Many terrorist acts are usually crushed by authorities who hold security power, but when the rebellion takes power and the independence is recognized as a new state, the position will be reversed. The terror acts of the rebels presume as patriotic acts. The performers of terrorism will be admired as hero/heroine, and international community will accept new regime. After the World War II the nation state was the basic unit. Political scientists pretend that only the state is allowed to have legitimate violence unit.


The situation before and after Israel independence was also such example. After World War II Palestinian territory where indigenous Arabs lived became the mandate ruling territory of the UK. The Jews were initially driven by the "Zionism Movement" and then gained the courage by Balfour Declaration. The Jews migrated one after another in Palestine and aimed to acquire their own land. The absentee landlords of the Ottoman Empire felt uneasy about the post-war turmoil. The Jews dazzled the landlords by money, and got the ownership of the land. Jews who became owners of the land swept away Arab peasants and constructed collective farm Kibbutz.


A conflict between Arabs and Jews had occurred. The British government entrusted with mandate administration tried to calm the struggle between Jewish and Arab by restricting the acquisition of land by Jewish immigrants. Then the Jewish resistance movement changed the target to the British government. Terrorist activities frequently occurred in the conflict of the Jews, the Arabs and the British government in a tripartite manner.


The biggest terror activity by the Jews against the UK was the King David Hotel bombing incident in July 1946. 91 people including hotel guests died by this incident. The perpetrator was a extremist Zionist organization and Haganah of which roots was the vigilante of collective farm Kibbutz. Haganah later became the Israeli Defense Forces. After World War II, independence terrorism activities by Haganah and the military organization Irgun, hardliners against Arabs, became intense. The British Government, which lost the control, finally decided to give up mandatory rule on May 14, 1948.


With the chance of independence, Haganah and Irgun strengthen terror activities against both the UK and Arab. Major members of Haganah include Mr. Yitzhak Ravin, who later became Prime Minister and won the Nobel Peace Prize, and Moshe Dayan with black-eye patch, who had a number of heroic story. In Irgun there were Menahham Beguin who also became prime minister.


The Jews proclaimed independence just on the day of UK mandate reign. Independent leader Ben Glion read loudly the Israeli Declaration of Independence beginning with the exportation saying, "the Land of Israel was the birthplace of the Jewish people." The neighbouring Arab countries did not recognize the independence of Israel and took military intervention. This was the First Arab-Israeli War.


In March 1949, Elat, a port town located in the innermost part of Gulf of Aqaba connecting to the Red Sea also became a battlefield and was occupied by the Israeli army. The Israeli soldiers made bedsheet of a nearby hotel into a national flag painted by blue ink and hoisted it at the port. This was what was called the "Ink Flag”. The photograph of Ink Flag became to the legend as a symbol of the First Arab-Israeli War. That legend is exactly the same as the picture of “Raising the Flag on Iwojima”, a fierce battlefield of the World War II in Pacific Ocean. Israel secured an exit on the Red Sea in addition to the Mediterranean.


In the same year a boy was born in the Zahra family of Palestinian farmer in the outskirts of Elat town. The Zahra family escaped in this war and was able to continue a quiet life. But there was no guarantee that the peaceful life would last forever.


(To be continued ----)


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